Commit f6d62af4 authored by Iustin Pop's avatar Iustin Pop
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Update install document


Signed-off-by: default avatarIustin Pop <iustin@google.com>
Reviewed-by: default avatarMichael Hanselmann <hansmi@google.com>
parent 73225861
......@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ Documents Ganeti version |version|
.. contents::
.. highlight:: text
.. highlight:: shell-example
Introduction
------------
......@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ section of the :doc:`admin`. Please refer to that document if you are
uncertain about the terms we are using.
Ganeti has been developed for Linux and should be distribution-agnostic.
This documentation will use Debian Lenny as an example system but the
This documentation will use Debian Squeeze as an example system but the
examples can be translated to any other distribution. You are expected
to be familiar with your distribution, its package management system,
and Xen or KVM before trying to use Ganeti.
......@@ -51,8 +51,9 @@ are better as they can support more memory.
Any disk drive recognized by Linux (``IDE``/``SCSI``/``SATA``/etc.) is
supported in Ganeti. Note that no shared storage (e.g. ``SAN``) is
needed to get high-availability features (but of course, one can be used
to store the images). It is highly recommended to use more than one disk
drive to improve speed. But Ganeti also works with one disk per machine.
to store the images). Whilte it is highly recommended to use more than
one disk drive in order to improve speed, Ganeti also works with one
disk per machine.
Installing the base system
++++++++++++++++++++++++++
......@@ -70,7 +71,7 @@ You can also use file-based storage only, without LVM, but this setup is
not detailed in this document.
If you choose to use RBD-based instances, there's no need for LVM
provisioning. However, this feature is experimental, and is not
provisioning. However, this feature is experimental, and is not yet
recommended for production clusters.
While you can use an existing system, please note that the Ganeti
......@@ -92,9 +93,9 @@ and not just *node1*.
.. admonition:: Debian
Debian Lenny and Etch configures the hostname differently than you
need it for Ganeti. For example, this is what Etch puts in
``/etc/hosts`` in certain situations::
Debian usually configures the hostname differently than you need it
for Ganeti. For example, this is what it puts in ``/etc/hosts`` in
certain situations::
127.0.0.1 localhost
127.0.1.1 node1.example.com node1
......@@ -102,7 +103,7 @@ and not just *node1*.
but for Ganeti you need to have::
127.0.0.1 localhost
192.0.2.1 node1.example.com node1
192.0.2.1 node1.example.com node1
replacing ``192.0.2.1`` with your node's address. Also, the file
``/etc/hostname`` which configures the hostname of the system
......@@ -136,8 +137,9 @@ Installing The Hypervisor
While Ganeti is developed with the ability to modularly run on different
virtualization environments in mind the only two currently useable on a
live system are Xen and KVM. Supported Xen versions are: 3.0.3, 3.0.4
and 3.1. Supported KVM version are 72 and above.
live system are Xen and KVM. Supported Xen versions are: 3.0.3 and later
3.x versions, and 4.x (tested up to 4.1). Supported KVM versions are 72
and above.
Please follow your distribution's recommended way to install and set up
Xen, or install Xen from the upstream source, if you wish, following
......@@ -151,9 +153,9 @@ kernels. For KVM no reboot should be necessary.
.. admonition:: Xen on Debian
Under Lenny or Etch you can install the relevant ``xen-linux-system``
Under Debian you can install the relevant ``xen-linux-system``
package, which will pull in both the hypervisor and the relevant
kernel. Also, if you are installing a 32-bit Lenny/Etch, you should
kernel. Also, if you are installing a 32-bit system, you should
install the ``libc6-xen`` package (run ``apt-get install
libc6-xen``).
......@@ -169,7 +171,7 @@ the file ``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp`` by setting the value
For optimum performance when running both CPU and I/O intensive
instances, it's also recommended that the dom0 is restricted to one CPU
only, for example by booting with the kernel parameter ``nosmp``.
only, for example by booting with the kernel parameter ``maxcpus=1``.
It is recommended that you disable xen's automatic save of virtual
machines at system shutdown and subsequent restore of them at reboot.
......@@ -178,7 +180,9 @@ To obtain this make sure the variable ``XENDOMAINS_SAVE`` in the file
If you want to use live migration make sure you have, in the xen config
file, something that allows the nodes to migrate instances between each
other. For example::
other. For example:
.. code-block:: text
(xend-relocation-server yes)
(xend-relocation-port 8002)
......@@ -196,39 +200,46 @@ line assumes that all your nodes have secondary IPs in the
Besides the ballooning change which you need to set in
``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp``, you need to set the memory and nosmp
parameters in the file ``/boot/grub/menu.lst``. You need to modify
the variable ``xenhopt`` to add ``dom0_mem=1024M`` like this::
the variable ``xenhopt`` to add ``dom0_mem=1024M`` like this:
.. code-block:: text
## Xen hypervisor options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenhopt=dom0_mem=1024M
and the ``xenkopt`` needs to include the ``nosmp`` option like this::
and the ``xenkopt`` needs to include the ``maxcpus`` option like
this:
.. code-block:: text
## Xen Linux kernel options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenkopt=nosmp
# xenkopt=maxcpus=1
Any existing parameters can be left in place: it's ok to have
``xenkopt=console=tty0 nosmp``, for example. After modifying the
``xenkopt=console=tty0 maxcpus=1``, for example. After modifying the
files, you need to run::
/sbin/update-grub
$ /sbin/update-grub
If you want to run HVM instances too with Ganeti and want VNC access to
the console of your instances, set the following two entries in
``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp``::
``/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp``:
.. code-block:: text
(vnc-listen '0.0.0.0') (vncpasswd '')
You need to restart the Xen daemon for these settings to take effect::
/etc/init.d/xend restart
$ /etc/init.d/xend restart
Selecting the instance kernel
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
After you have installed Xen, you need to tell Ganeti exactly what
kernel to use for the instances it will create. This is done by creating
a symlink from your actual kernel to ``/boot/vmlinuz-2.6-xenU``, and one
from your initrd to ``/boot/initrd-2.6-xenU`` [#defkernel]_. Note that
a symlink from your actual kernel to ``/boot/vmlinuz-3-xenU``, and one
from your initrd to ``/boot/initrd-3-xenU`` [#defkernel]_. Note that
if you don't use an initrd for the domU kernel, you don't need to create
the initrd symlink.
......@@ -237,9 +248,16 @@ the initrd symlink.
After installation of the ``xen-linux-system`` package, you need to
run (replace the exact version number with the one you have)::
cd /boot
ln -s vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-xen-amd64 vmlinuz-2.6-xenU
ln -s initrd.img-2.6.26-1-xen-amd64 initrd-2.6-xenU
$ cd /boot
$ ln -s vmlinuz-%2.6.26-1%-xen-amd64 vmlinuz-3-xenU
$ ln -s initrd.img-%2.6.26-1%-xen-amd64 initrd-3-xenU
By default, the initrd doesn't contain the Xen block drivers needed
to mount the root device, so it is recommended to update the initrd
by following these two steps:
- edit ``/etc/initramfs-tools/modules`` and add ``xen_blkfront``
- run ``update-initramfs -u``
Installing DRBD
+++++++++++++++
......@@ -247,14 +265,14 @@ Installing DRBD
Recommended on all nodes: DRBD_ is required if you want to use the high
availability (HA) features of Ganeti, but optional if you don't require
them or only run Ganeti on single-node clusters. You can upgrade a
non-HA cluster to an HA one later, but you might need to export and
re-import all your instances to take advantage of the new features.
non-HA cluster to an HA one later, but you might need to convert all
your instances to DRBD to take advantage of the new features.
.. _DRBD: http://www.drbd.org/
Supported DRBD versions: 8.0+. It's recommended to have at least version
8.0.12. Note that for version 8.2 and newer it is needed to pass the
``usermode_helper=/bin/true`` parameter to the module, either by
Supported DRBD versions: 8.0-8.3. It's recommended to have at least
version 8.0.12. Note that for version 8.2 and newer it is needed to pass
the ``usermode_helper=/bin/true`` parameter to the module, either by
configuring ``/etc/modules`` or when inserting it manually.
Now the bad news: unless your distribution already provides it
......@@ -280,17 +298,19 @@ instances on a node.
following commands, making sure you are running the target (Xen or
KVM) kernel::
apt-get install drbd8-source drbd8-utils
m-a update
m-a a-i drbd8
echo drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true >> /etc/modules
depmod -a
modprobe drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true
$ apt-get install drbd8-source drbd8-utils
$ m-a update
$ m-a a-i drbd8
$ echo drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true >> /etc/modules
$ depmod -a
$ modprobe drbd minor_count=128 usermode_helper=/bin/true
It is also recommended that you comment out the default resources in
the ``/etc/drbd.conf`` file, so that the init script doesn't try to
configure any drbd devices. You can do this by prefixing all
*resource* lines in the file with the keyword *skip*, like this::
*resource* lines in the file with the keyword *skip*, like this:
.. code-block:: text
skip {
resource r0 {
......@@ -305,7 +325,7 @@ instances on a node.
}
Installing RBD
+++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++
Recommended on all nodes: RBD_ is required if you want to create
instances with RBD disks residing inside a RADOS cluster (make use of
......@@ -360,7 +380,7 @@ above. We recommend using the latest version of ``ceph-common``.
On Debian, you can just install the RBD/Ceph userspace utils with
the following command::
apt-get install ceph-common
$ apt-get install ceph-common
Configuration file
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
......@@ -371,7 +391,9 @@ only need to specify the IP addresses of the RADOS Cluster monitors.
.. admonition:: ceph.conf
Sample configuration file::
Sample configuration file:
.. code-block:: text
[mon.a]
host = example_monitor_host1
......@@ -399,8 +421,8 @@ Configuring the network
**Mandatory** on all nodes.
You can run Ganeti either in "bridge mode" or in "routed mode". In
bridge mode, the default, the instances network interfaces will be
You can run Ganeti either in "bridged mode" or in "routed mode". In
bridged mode, the default, the instances network interfaces will be
attached to a software bridge running in dom0. Xen by default creates
such a bridge at startup, but your distribution might have a different
way to do things, and you'll definitely need to manually set it up under
......@@ -418,7 +440,7 @@ interfaces correctly.
By default, under KVM, the "link" parameter you specify per-nic will
represent, if non-empty, a different routing table name or number to use
for your instances. This allows insulation between different instance
for your instances. This allows isolation between different instance
groups, and different routing policies between node traffic and instance
traffic.
......@@ -435,31 +457,31 @@ KVM, and in the main table under Xen).
auto xen-br0
iface xen-br0 inet static
address YOUR_IP_ADDRESS
netmask YOUR_NETMASK
network YOUR_NETWORK
broadcast YOUR_BROADCAST_ADDRESS
gateway YOUR_GATEWAY
address %YOUR_IP_ADDRESS%
netmask %YOUR_NETMASK%
network %YOUR_NETWORK%
broadcast %YOUR_BROADCAST_ADDRESS%
gateway %YOUR_GATEWAY%
bridge_ports eth0
bridge_stp off
bridge_fd 0
The following commands need to be executed on the local console:
The following commands need to be executed on the local console::
ifdown eth0
ifup xen-br0
$ ifdown eth0
$ ifup xen-br0
To check if the bridge is setup, use the ``ip`` and ``brctl show``
commands::
# ip a show xen-br0
$ ip a show xen-br0
9: xen-br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,10000> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
link/ether 00:20:fc:1e:d5:5d brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.1.1.200/24 brd 10.1.1.255 scope global xen-br0
inet6 fe80::220:fcff:fe1e:d55d/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
# brctl show xen-br0
$ brctl show xen-br0
bridge name bridge id STP enabled interfaces
xen-br0 8000.0020fc1ed55d no eth0
......@@ -477,25 +499,27 @@ to do it before trying to initialize the Ganeti cluster. This is done by
formatting the devices/partitions you want to use for it and then adding
them to the relevant volume group::
pvcreate /dev/sda3
vgcreate xenvg /dev/sda3
$ pvcreate /dev/%sda3%
$ vgcreate xenvg /dev/%sda3%
or::
pvcreate /dev/sdb1
pvcreate /dev/sdc1
vgcreate xenvg /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1
$ pvcreate /dev/%sdb1%
$ pvcreate /dev/%sdc1%
$ vgcreate xenvg /dev/%sdb1% /dev/%sdc1%
If you want to add a device later you can do so with the *vgextend*
command::
pvcreate /dev/sdd1
vgextend xenvg /dev/sdd1
$ pvcreate /dev/%sdd1%
$ vgextend xenvg /dev/%sdd1%
Optional: it is recommended to configure LVM not to scan the DRBD
devices for physical volumes. This can be accomplished by editing
``/etc/lvm/lvm.conf`` and adding the ``/dev/drbd[0-9]+`` regular
expression to the ``filter`` variable, like this::
expression to the ``filter`` variable, like this:
.. code-block:: text
filter = ["r|/dev/cdrom|", "r|/dev/drbd[0-9]+|" ]
......@@ -511,20 +535,20 @@ Installing Ganeti
It's now time to install the Ganeti software itself. Download the
source from the project page at `<http://code.google.com/p/ganeti/>`_,
and install it (replace 2.0.0 with the latest version)::
and install it (replace 2.6.0 with the latest version)::
tar xvzf ganeti-2.0.0.tar.gz
cd ganeti-2.0.0
./configure --localstatedir=/var --sysconfdir=/etc
make
make install
mkdir /srv/ganeti/ /srv/ganeti/os /srv/ganeti/export
$ tar xvzf ganeti-%2.6.0%.tar.gz
$ cd ganeti-%2.6.0%
$ ./configure --localstatedir=/var --sysconfdir=/etc
$ make
$ make install
$ mkdir /srv/ganeti/ /srv/ganeti/os /srv/ganeti/export
You also need to copy the file ``doc/examples/ganeti.initd`` from the
source archive to ``/etc/init.d/ganeti`` and register it with your
distribution's startup scripts, for example in Debian::
update-rc.d ganeti defaults 20 80
$ update-rc.d ganeti defaults 20 80
In order to automatically restart failed instances, you need to setup a
cron job run the *ganeti-watcher* command. A sample cron file is
......@@ -541,6 +565,8 @@ distribution mechanisms, will install on the system:
the python version this can be located in either
``lib/python-$ver/site-packages`` or various other locations)
- a set of programs under ``/usr/local/sbin`` or ``/usr/sbin``
- if the htools component was enabled, a set of programs unde
``/usr/local/bin`` or ``/usr/bin/``
- man pages for the above programs
- a set of tools under the ``lib/ganeti/tools`` directory
- an example iallocator script (see the admin guide for details) under
......@@ -563,13 +589,13 @@ site. Download it from the project page and follow the instructions in
the ``README`` file. Here is the installation procedure (replace 0.9
with the latest version that is compatible with your ganeti version)::
cd /usr/local/src/
wget http://ganeti.googlecode.com/files/ganeti-instance-debootstrap-0.9.tar.gz
tar xzf ganeti-instance-debootstrap-0.9.tar.gz
cd ganeti-instance-debootstrap-0.9
./configure
make
make install
$ cd /usr/local/src/
$ wget http://ganeti.googlecode.com/files/ganeti-instance-debootstrap-%0.9%.tar.gz
$ tar xzf ganeti-instance-debootstrap-%0.9%.tar.gz
$ cd ganeti-instance-debootstrap-%0.9%
$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install
In order to use this OS definition, you need to have internet access
from your nodes and have the *debootstrap*, *dump* and *restore*
......@@ -582,21 +608,25 @@ installed.
Use this command on all nodes to install the required packages::
apt-get install debootstrap dump kpartx
$ apt-get install debootstrap dump kpartx
Or alternatively install the OS definition from the Debian package::
$ apt-get install ganeti-instance-debootstrap
.. admonition:: KVM
In order for debootstrap instances to be able to shutdown cleanly
they must install have basic acpi support inside the instance. Which
packages are needed depend on the exact flavor of debian or ubuntu
they must install have basic ACPI support inside the instance. Which
packages are needed depend on the exact flavor of Debian or Ubuntu
which you're installing, but the example defaults file has a
commented out configuration line that works for debian lenny and
squeeze::
commented out configuration line that works for Debian Lenny and
Squeeze::
EXTRA_PKGS="acpi-support-base,console-tools,udev"
kbd can be used instead of console-tools, and more packages can be
added, of course, if needed.
``kbd`` can be used instead of ``console-tools``, and more packages
can be added, of course, if needed.
Alternatively, you can create your own OS definitions. See the manpage
:manpage:`ganeti-os-interface`.
......@@ -610,7 +640,7 @@ The last step is to initialize the cluster. After you have repeated the
above process on all of your nodes, choose one as the master, and
execute::
gnt-cluster init <CLUSTERNAME>
$ gnt-cluster init %CLUSTERNAME%
The *CLUSTERNAME* is a hostname, which must be resolvable (e.g. it must
exist in DNS or in ``/etc/hosts``) by all the nodes in the cluster. You
......@@ -624,7 +654,7 @@ hostname used for this must resolve to an IP address reserved
If you want to use a bridge which is not ``xen-br0``, or no bridge at
all, change it with the ``--nic-parameters`` option. For example to
bridge on br0 you can say::
bridge on br0 you can add::
--nic-parameters link=br0
......@@ -632,8 +662,8 @@ Or to not bridge at all, and use a separate routing table::
--nic-parameters mode=routed,link=100
If you don't have a xen-br0 interface you also have to specify a
different network interface which will get the cluster ip, on the master
If you don't have a ``xen-br0`` interface you also have to specify a
different network interface which will get the cluster IP, on the master
node, by using the ``--master-netdev <device>`` option.
You can use a different name than ``xenvg`` for the volume group (but
......@@ -659,13 +689,14 @@ Hypervisor/Network/Cluster parameters
Please note that the default hypervisor/network/cluster parameters may
not be the correct one for your environment. Carefully check them, and
change them at cluster init time, or later with ``gnt-cluster modify``.
change them either at cluster init time, or later with ``gnt-cluster
modify``.
Your instance types, networking environment, hypervisor type and version
may all affect what kind of parameters should be used on your cluster.
For example kvm instances are by default configured to use a host
kernel, and to be reached via serial console, which works nice for linux
kernel, and to be reached via serial console, which works nice for Linux
paravirtualized instances. If you want fully virtualized instances you
may want to handle their kernel inside the instance, and to use VNC.
......@@ -678,7 +709,7 @@ After you have initialized your cluster you need to join the other nodes
to it. You can do so by executing the following command on the master
node::
gnt-node add <NODENAME>
$ gnt-node add %NODENAME%
Separate replication network
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
......@@ -699,7 +730,7 @@ Testing the setup
Execute the ``gnt-node list`` command to see all nodes in the cluster::
# gnt-node list
$ gnt-node list
Node DTotal DFree MTotal MNode MFree Pinst Sinst
node1.example.com 197404 197404 2047 1896 125 0 0
......
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