__init__.py 34.1 KB
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# Copyright (C) 2012, 2013 GRNET S.A. All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
# without modification, are permitted provided that the following
# conditions are met:
#
#   1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above
#      copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
#      disclaimer.
#
#   2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
#      copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
#      disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
#      provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY GRNET S.A. ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS
# OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
# WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
# PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL GRNET S.A OR
# CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
# SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
# LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
# USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED
# AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
# ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
# POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
#
# The views and conclusions contained in the software and
# documentation are those of the authors and should not be
# interpreted as representing official policies, either expressed
# or implied, of GRNET S.A.
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"""
Simple and minimal client for the Astakos authentication service
"""

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import logging
import urlparse
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import urllib
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import hashlib
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from copy import copy
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import simplejson
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from astakosclient.utils import \
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    retry_dec, scheme_to_class, parse_request, check_input, join_urls
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from astakosclient.errors import \
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    AstakosClientException, Unauthorized, BadRequest, NotFound, Forbidden, \
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    NoUserName, NoUUID, BadValue, QuotaLimit, InvalidResponse, NoEndpoints
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# --------------------------------------------------------------------
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# Astakos Client Class
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def get_token_from_cookie(request, cookie_name):
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    """Extract token from the cookie name provided

    Cookie should be in the same form as astakos
    service sets its cookie contents:
        <user_uniq>|<user_token>

    """
    try:
        cookie_content = urllib.unquote(request.COOKIE.get(cookie_name, None))
        return cookie_content.split("|")[1]
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    except BaseException:
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        return None


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# Too many instance attributes. pylint: disable-msg=R0902
# Too many public methods. pylint: disable-msg=R0904
class AstakosClient(object):
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    """AstakosClient Class Implementation"""

    # ----------------------------------
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    # Initialize AstakosClient Class
    # Too many arguments. pylint: disable-msg=R0913
    # Too many local variables. pylint: disable-msg=R0914
    # Too many statements. pylint: disable-msg=R0915
    def __init__(self, token, auth_url,
                 retry=0, use_pool=False, pool_size=8, logger=None):
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        """Initialize AstakosClient Class
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        Keyword arguments:
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        token       -- user's/service's token (string)
        auth_url    -- i.e https://accounts.example.com/identity/v2.0
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        retry       -- how many time to retry (integer)
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        use_pool    -- use objpool for http requests (boolean)
        pool_size   -- if using pool, define the pool size
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        logger      -- pass a different logger

        """
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        # Get logger
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        if logger is None:
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            logging.basicConfig(
                format='%(asctime)s [%(levelname)s] %(name)s %(message)s',
                datefmt='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S',
                level=logging.INFO)
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            logger = logging.getLogger("astakosclient")
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        logger.debug("Intialize AstakosClient: auth_url = %s, "
                     "use_pool = %s, pool_size = %s",
                     auth_url, use_pool, pool_size)
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        # Check that token and auth_url (mandatory options) are given
        check_input("__init__", logger, token=token, auth_url=auth_url)
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        # Initialize connection class
        parsed_auth_url = urlparse.urlparse(auth_url)
        conn_class = \
            scheme_to_class(parsed_auth_url.scheme, use_pool, pool_size)
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        if conn_class is None:
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            msg = "Unsupported scheme: %s" % parsed_auth_url.scheme
            logger.error(msg)
            raise BadValue(msg)
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        # Save astakos base url, logger, connection class etc in our class
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        self.retry = retry
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        self.logger = logger
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        self.token = token
        self.astakos_base_url = parsed_auth_url.netloc
        self.scheme = parsed_auth_url.scheme
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        self.conn_class = conn_class
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        # Initialize astakos api prefixes
        # API urls under auth_url
        self.auth_prefix = parsed_auth_url.path
        self.api_tokens = join_urls(self.auth_prefix, "tokens")

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    def _fill_endpoints(self, endpoints):
        astakos_service_catalog = parse_endpoints(
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            endpoints, ep_name="astakos_account", ep_version_id="v1.0")
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        self._account_url = \
            astakos_service_catalog[0]['endpoints'][0]['publicURL']
        parsed_account_url = urlparse.urlparse(self._account_url)

        self._account_prefix = parsed_account_url.path
        self.logger.debug("Got account_prefix \"%s\"" % self._account_prefix)

        self._ui_url = \
            astakos_service_catalog[0]['endpoints'][0]['SNF:uiURL']
        parsed_ui_url = urlparse.urlparse(self._ui_url)

        self._ui_prefix = parsed_ui_url.path
        self.logger.debug("Got ui_prefix \"%s\"" % self._ui_prefix)

    def _get_value(self, s):
        assert s in ['_account_url', '_account_prefix',
                     '_ui_url', '_ui_prefix']
        try:
            return getattr(self, s)
        except AttributeError:
            self.get_endpoints()
            return getattr(self, s)

    @property
    def account_url(self):
        return self._get_value('_account_url')

    @property
    def account_prefix(self):
        return self._get_value('_account_prefix')

    @property
    def ui_url(self):
        return self._get_value('_ui_url')

    @property
    def ui_prefix(self):
        return self._get_value('_ui_prefix')

    @property
    def api_usercatalogs(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "user_catalogs")

    @property
    def api_service_usercatalogs(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "service/user_catalogs")

    @property
    def api_resources(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "resources")

    @property
    def api_quotas(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "quotas")

    @property
    def api_service_quotas(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "service_quotas")
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    @property
    def api_commissions(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "commissions")
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    @property
    def api_commissions_action(self):
        return join_urls(self.api_commissions, "action")

    @property
    def api_feedback(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "feedback")

    @property
    def api_projects(self):
        return join_urls(self.account_prefix, "projects")

    @property
    def api_applications(self):
        return join_urls(self.api_projects, "apps")

    @property
    def api_memberships(self):
        return join_urls(self.api_projects, "memberships")

    @property
    def api_getservices(self):
        return join_urls(self.ui_prefix, "get_services")
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    # ----------------------------------
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    @retry_dec
    def _call_astakos(self, request_path, headers=None,
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                      body=None, method="GET", log_body=True):
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        """Make the actual call to Astakos Service"""
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        hashed_token = hashlib.sha1()
        hashed_token.update(self.token)
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        self.logger.debug(
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            "Make a %s request to %s, using token with hash %s, "
            "with headers %s and body %s",
            method, request_path, hashed_token.hexdigest(), headers,
            body if log_body else "(not logged)")
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        # Check Input
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        if headers is None:
            headers = {}
        if body is None:
            body = {}
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        # Build request's header and body
        kwargs = {}
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        kwargs['headers'] = copy(headers)
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        kwargs['headers']['X-Auth-Token'] = self.token
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        if body:
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            kwargs['body'] = copy(body)
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            kwargs['headers'].setdefault(
                'content-type', 'application/octet-stream')
        kwargs['headers'].setdefault('content-length',
                                     len(body) if body else 0)

        try:
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            # Get the connection object
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            with self.conn_class(self.astakos_base_url) as conn:
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                # Send request
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                # Used * or ** magic. pylint: disable-msg=W0142
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                (message, data, status) = \
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                    _do_request(conn, method, request_path, **kwargs)
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        except Exception as err:
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            self.logger.error("Failed to send request: %s" % repr(err))
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            raise AstakosClientException(str(err))

        # Return
        self.logger.debug("Request returned with status %s" % status)
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        if status == 400:
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            raise BadRequest(message, data)
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        elif status == 401:
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            raise Unauthorized(message, data)
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        elif status == 403:
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            raise Forbidden(message, data)
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        elif status == 404:
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            raise NotFound(message, data)
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        elif status < 200 or status >= 300:
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            raise AstakosClientException(message, data, status)
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        try:
            if data:
                return simplejson.loads(unicode(data))
            else:
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                return None
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        except Exception as err:
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            msg = "Cannot parse response \"%s\" with simplejson: %s"
            self.logger.error(msg % (data, str(err)))
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            raise InvalidResponse(str(err), data)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a POST to ``API_USERCATALOGS`` (or ``API_SERVICE_USERCATALOGS``)
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    #   with {'uuids': uuids}
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    def _uuid_catalog(self, uuids, req_path):
        """Helper function to retrieve uuid catalog"""
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        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
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        req_body = parse_request({'uuids': uuids}, self.logger)
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        data = self._call_astakos(req_path, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")
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        if "uuid_catalog" in data:
            return data.get("uuid_catalog")
        else:
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            msg = "_uuid_catalog request returned %s. No uuid_catalog found" \
                  % data
            self.logger.error(msg)
            raise AstakosClientException(msg)
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    def get_usernames(self, uuids):
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        """Return a uuid_catalog dictionary for the given uuids

        Keyword arguments:
        uuids   -- list of user ids (list of strings)

        The returned uuid_catalog is a dictionary with uuids as
        keys and the corresponding user names as values

        """
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        return self._uuid_catalog(uuids, self.api_usercatalogs)
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    def get_username(self, uuid):
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        """Return the user name of a uuid (see get_usernames)"""
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        check_input("get_username", self.logger, uuid=uuid)
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        uuid_dict = self.get_usernames([uuid])
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        if uuid in uuid_dict:
            return uuid_dict.get(uuid)
        else:
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            raise NoUserName(uuid)
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    def service_get_usernames(self, uuids):
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        """Return a uuid_catalog dict using a service's token"""
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        return self._uuid_catalog(uuids, self.api_service_usercatalogs)
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    def service_get_username(self, uuid):
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        """Return the displayName of a uuid using a service's token"""
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        check_input("service_get_username", self.logger, uuid=uuid)
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        uuid_dict = self.service_get_usernames([uuid])
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        if uuid in uuid_dict:
            return uuid_dict.get(uuid)
        else:
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            raise NoUserName(uuid)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a POST to ``API_USERCATALOGS`` (or ``API_SERVICE_USERCATALOGS``)
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    #   with {'displaynames': display_names}
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    def _displayname_catalog(self, display_names, req_path):
        """Helper function to retrieve display names catalog"""
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        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
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        req_body = parse_request({'displaynames': display_names}, self.logger)
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        data = self._call_astakos(req_path, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")
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        if "displayname_catalog" in data:
            return data.get("displayname_catalog")
        else:
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            msg = "_displayname_catalog request returned %s. " \
                  "No displayname_catalog found" % data
            self.logger.error(msg)
            raise AstakosClientException(msg)
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    def get_uuids(self, display_names):
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        """Return a displayname_catalog for the given names

        Keyword arguments:
        display_names   -- list of user names (list of strings)

        The returned displayname_catalog is a dictionary with
        the names as keys and the corresponding uuids as values

        """
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        return self._displayname_catalog(
            display_names, self.api_usercatalogs)
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    def get_uuid(self, display_name):
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        """Return the uuid of a name (see getUUIDs)"""
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        check_input("get_uuid", self.logger, display_name=display_name)
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        name_dict = self.get_uuids([display_name])
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        if display_name in name_dict:
            return name_dict.get(display_name)
        else:
            raise NoUUID(display_name)
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    def service_get_uuids(self, display_names):
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        """Return a display_name catalog using a service's token"""
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        return self._displayname_catalog(
            display_names, self.api_service_usercatalogs)
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    def service_get_uuid(self, display_name):
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        """Return the uuid of a name using a service's token"""
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        check_input("service_get_uuid", self.logger, display_name=display_name)
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        name_dict = self.service_get_uuids([display_name])
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        if display_name in name_dict:
            return name_dict.get(display_name)
        else:
            raise NoUUID(display_name)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a GET to ``API_GETSERVICES``
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    def get_services(self):
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        """Return a list of dicts with the registered services"""
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_getservices)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a GET to ``API_RESOURCES``
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    def get_resources(self):
        """Return a dict of dicts with the available resources"""
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_resources)
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    # ----------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_FEEDBACK``
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    def send_feedback(self, message, data):
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        """Send feedback to astakos service

        keyword arguments:
        message     -- Feedback message
        data        -- Additional information about service client status

        In case of success return nothing.
        Otherwise raise an AstakosClientException

        """
        check_input("send_feedback", self.logger, message=message, data=data)
        req_body = urllib.urlencode(
            {'feedback_msg': message, 'feedback_data': data})
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        self._call_astakos(self.api_feedback, headers=None,
                           body=req_body, method="POST")
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    # -----------------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_TOKENS`` with no token
    def get_endpoints(self):
        """ Get services' endpoints

        In case of error raise an AstakosClientException.

        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = None
        r = self._call_astakos(self.api_tokens, headers=req_headers,
                               body=req_body, method="POST",
                               log_body=False)
        self._fill_endpoints(r)
        return r

    # --------------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_TOKENS`` with a token
    def authenticate(self, tenant_name=None):
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        """ Authenticate and get services' endpoints
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        Keyword arguments:
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        tenant_name         -- user's uniq id (optional)
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        It returns back the token as well as information about the token
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        holder and the services he/she can access (in json format).
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        The tenant_name is optional and if it is given it must match the
        user's uuid.

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        In case of error raise an AstakosClientException.

        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
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        body = {'auth': {'token': {'id': self.token}}}
        if tenant_name is not None:
            body['auth']['tenantName'] = tenant_name
        req_body = parse_request(body, self.logger)
        r = self._call_astakos(self.api_tokens, headers=req_headers,
                               body=req_body, method="POST",
                               log_body=False)
        self._fill_endpoints(r)
        return r
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a GET to ``API_QUOTAS``
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    def get_quotas(self):
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        """Get user's quotas

        In case of success return a dict of dicts with user's current quotas.
        Otherwise raise an AstakosClientException

        """
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_quotas)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a GET to ``API_SERVICE_QUOTAS``
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    def service_get_quotas(self, user=None):
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        """Get all quotas for resources associated with the service

        Keyword arguments:
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        user    -- optionally, the uuid of a specific user
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        In case of success return a dict of dicts of dicts with current quotas
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        for all users, or of a specified user, if user argument is set.
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        Otherwise raise an AstakosClientException

        """
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        query = self.api_service_quotas
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        if user is not None:
            query += "?user=" + user
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        return self._call_astakos(query)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a POST to ``API_COMMISSIONS``
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    def issue_commission(self, request):
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        """Issue a commission

        Keyword arguments:
        request -- commision request (dict)

        In case of success return commission's id (int).
        Otherwise raise an AstakosClientException.

        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
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        req_body = parse_request(request, self.logger)
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        try:
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            response = self._call_astakos(self.api_commissions,
                                          headers=req_headers,
                                          body=req_body,
                                          method="POST")
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        except AstakosClientException as err:
            if err.status == 413:
                raise QuotaLimit(err.message, err.details)
            else:
                raise

        if "serial" in response:
            return response['serial']
        else:
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            msg = "issue_commission_core request returned %s. " + \
                  "No serial found" % response
            self.logger.error(msg)
            raise AstakosClientException(msg)
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    def issue_one_commission(self, holder, source, provisions,
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                             name="", force=False, auto_accept=False):
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        """Issue one commission (with specific holder and source)

        keyword arguments:
        holder      -- user's id (string)
        source      -- commission's source (ex system) (string)
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        provisions  -- resources with their quantity (dict from string to int)
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        name        -- description of the commission (string)
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        force       -- force this commission (boolean)
        auto_accept -- auto accept this commission (boolean)

        In case of success return commission's id (int).
        Otherwise raise an AstakosClientException.
        (See also issue_commission)

        """
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        check_input("issue_one_commission", self.logger,
                    holder=holder, source=source,
                    provisions=provisions)
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        request = {}
        request["force"] = force
        request["auto_accept"] = auto_accept
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        request["name"] = name
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        try:
            request["provisions"] = []
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            for resource, quantity in provisions.iteritems():
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                prov = {"holder": holder, "source": source,
                        "resource": resource, "quantity": quantity}
                request["provisions"].append(prov)
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        except Exception as err:
            self.logger.error(str(err))
            raise BadValue(str(err))

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        return self.issue_commission(request)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a GET to ``API_COMMISSIONS``
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    def get_pending_commissions(self):
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        """Get Pending Commissions

        In case of success return a list of pending commissions' ids
        (list of integers)

        """
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_commissions)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a GET to ``API_COMMISSIONS``/<serial>
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    def get_commission_info(self, serial):
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        """Get Description of a Commission

        Keyword arguments:
        serial  -- commission's id (int)

        In case of success return a dict of dicts containing
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        informations (details) about the requested commission
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        """
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        check_input("get_commission_info", self.logger, serial=serial)
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        path = self.api_commissions.rstrip('/') + "/" + str(serial)
        return self._call_astakos(path)
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a POST to ``API_COMMISSIONS``/<serial>/action"
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    def commission_action(self, serial, action):
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        """Perform a commission action
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        Keyword arguments:
        serial  -- commission's id (int)
        action  -- action to perform, currently accept/reject (string)

        In case of success return nothing.

        """
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        check_input("commission_action", self.logger,
                    serial=serial, action=action)
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        path = self.api_commissions.rstrip('/') + "/" + str(serial) + "/action"
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        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
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        req_body = parse_request({str(action): ""}, self.logger)
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        self._call_astakos(path, headers=req_headers,
                           body=req_body, method="POST")
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    def accept_commission(self, serial):
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        """Accept a commission (see commission_action)"""
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        self.commission_action(serial, "accept")
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    def reject_commission(self, serial):
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        """Reject a commission (see commission_action)"""
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        self.commission_action(serial, "reject")
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    # ----------------------------------
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    # do a POST to ``API_COMMISSIONS_ACTION``
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    def resolve_commissions(self, accept_serials, reject_serials):
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        """Resolve multiple commissions at once

        Keyword arguments:
        accept_serials  -- commissions to accept (list of ints)
        reject_serials  -- commissions to reject (list of ints)

        In case of success return a dict of dicts describing which
        commissions accepted, which rejected and which failed to
        resolved.

        """
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        check_input("resolve_commissions", self.logger,
                    accept_serials=accept_serials,
                    reject_serials=reject_serials)
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        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = parse_request({"accept": accept_serials,
                                  "reject": reject_serials},
                                 self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_commissions_action,
                                  headers=req_headers, body=req_body,
                                  method="POST")
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    # ----------------------------
    # do a GET to ``API_PROJECTS``
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    def get_projects(self, name=None, state=None, owner=None):
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        """Retrieve all accessible projects

        Arguments:
        name  -- filter by name (optional)
        state -- filter by state (optional)
        owner -- filter by owner (optional)

        In case of success, return a list of project descriptions.
        """
        filters = {}
        if name is not None:
            filters["name"] = name
        if state is not None:
            filters["state"] = state
        if owner is not None:
            filters["owner"] = owner
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = (parse_request({"filter": filters}, self.logger)
                    if filters else None)
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_projects,
                                  headers=req_headers, body=req_body)
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    # -----------------------------------------
    # do a GET to ``API_PROJECTS``/<project_id>
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    def get_project(self, project_id):
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        """Retrieve project description, if accessible

        Arguments:
        project_id -- project identifier

        In case of success, return project description.
        """
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        path = join_urls(self.api_projects, str(project_id))
        return self._call_astakos(path)
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    # -----------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_PROJECTS``
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    def create_project(self, specs):
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        """Submit application to create a new project

        Arguments:
        specs -- dict describing a project

        In case of success, return project and application identifiers.
        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = parse_request(specs, self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_projects,
                                  headers=req_headers, body=req_body,
                                  method="POST")
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    # ------------------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_PROJECTS``/<project_id>
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    def modify_project(self, project_id, specs):
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        """Submit application to modify an existing project

        Arguments:
        project_id -- project identifier
        specs      -- dict describing a project

        In case of success, return project and application identifiers.
        """
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        path = join_urls(self.api_projects, str(project_id))
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        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = parse_request(specs, self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(path, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")
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    # -------------------------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_PROJECTS``/<project_id>/action
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    def project_action(self, project_id, action, reason=""):
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        """Perform action on a project

        Arguments:
        project_id -- project identifier
        action     -- action to perform, one of "suspend", "unsuspend",
                      "terminate", "reinstate"
        reason     -- reason of performing the action

        In case of success, return nothing.
        """
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        path = join_urls(self.api_projects, str(project_id))
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        path = join_urls(path, "action")
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = parse_request({action: reason}, self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(path, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")
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    # --------------------------------
    # do a GET to ``API_APPLICATIONS``
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    def get_applications(self, project=None):
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        """Retrieve all accessible applications

        Arguments:
        project -- filter by project (optional)

        In case of success, return a list of application descriptions.
        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        body = {"project": project} if project is not None else None
        req_body = parse_request(body, self.logger) if body else None
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_applications,
                                  headers=req_headers, body=req_body)
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    # -----------------------------------------
    # do a GET to ``API_APPLICATIONS``/<app_id>
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    def get_application(self, app_id):
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        """Retrieve application description, if accessible

        Arguments:
        app_id -- application identifier

        In case of success, return application description.
        """
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        path = join_urls(self.api_applications, str(app_id))
        return self._call_astakos(path)
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    # -------------------------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_APPLICATIONS``/<app_id>/action
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    def application_action(self, app_id, action, reason=""):
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        """Perform action on an application

        Arguments:
        app_id -- application identifier
        action -- action to perform, one of "approve", "deny",
                  "dismiss", "cancel"
        reason -- reason of performing the action

        In case of success, return nothing.
        """
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        path = join_urls(self.api_applications, str(app_id))
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        path = join_urls(path, "action")
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = parse_request({action: reason}, self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(path, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")
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    # -------------------------------
    # do a GET to ``API_MEMBERSHIPS``
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    def get_memberships(self, project=None):
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        """Retrieve all accessible memberships

        Arguments:
        project -- filter by project (optional)

        In case of success, return a list of membership descriptions.
        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        body = {"project": project} if project is not None else None
        req_body = parse_request(body, self.logger) if body else None
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_memberships,
                                  headers=req_headers, body=req_body)
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    # -----------------------------------------
    # do a GET to ``API_MEMBERSHIPS``/<memb_id>
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    def get_membership(self, memb_id):
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        """Retrieve membership description, if accessible

        Arguments:
        memb_id -- membership identifier

        In case of success, return membership description.
        """
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        path = join_urls(self.api_memberships, str(memb_id))
        return self._call_astakos(path)
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    # -------------------------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_MEMBERSHIPS``/<memb_id>/action
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    def membership_action(self, memb_id, action, reason=""):
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        """Perform action on a membership

        Arguments:
        memb_id -- membership identifier
        action  -- action to perform, one of "leave", "cancel", "accept",
                   "reject", "remove"
        reason  -- reason of performing the action

        In case of success, return nothing.
        """
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        path = join_urls(self.api_memberships, str(memb_id))
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        path = join_urls(path, "action")
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        req_body = parse_request({action: reason}, self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(path, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")
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    # --------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_MEMBERSHIPS``
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    def join_project(self, project_id):
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        """Join a project

        Arguments:
        project_id -- project identifier

        In case of success, return membership identifier.
        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        body = {"join": {"project": project_id}}
        req_body = parse_request(body, self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_memberships, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")
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    # --------------------------------
    # do a POST to ``API_MEMBERSHIPS``
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    def enroll_member(self, project_id, email):
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        """Enroll a user in a project

        Arguments:
        project_id -- project identifier
        email      -- user identified by email

        In case of success, return membership identifier.
        """
        req_headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
        body = {"enroll": {"project": project_id, "user": email}}
        req_body = parse_request(body, self.logger)
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        return self._call_astakos(self.api_memberships, headers=req_headers,
                                  body=req_body, method="POST")


# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# parse endpoints
def parse_endpoints(endpoints, ep_name=None, ep_type=None,
                    ep_region=None, ep_version_id=None):
    """Parse endpoints server response and extract the ones needed

    Keyword arguments:
    endpoints     -- the endpoints (json response from get_endpoints)
    ep_name       -- return only endpoints with this name (optional)
    ep_type       -- return only endpoints with this type (optional)
    ep_region     -- return only endpoints with this region (optional)
    ep_version_id -- return only endpoints with this versionId (optional)

881
    In case one of the `name', `type', `region', `version_id' parameters
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    is given, return only the endpoints that match all of these criteria.
    If no match is found then raise NoEndpoints exception.

    """
    try:
        catalog = endpoints['access']['serviceCatalog']
        if ep_name is not None:
            catalog = \
                [c for c in catalog if c['name'] == ep_name]
        if ep_type is not None:
            catalog = \
                [c for c in catalog if c['type'] == ep_type]
        if ep_region is not None:
            for c in catalog:
                c['endpoints'] = [e for e in c['endpoints']
                                  if e['region'] == ep_region]
            # Remove catalog entries with no endpoints
            catalog = \
                [c for c in catalog if c['endpoints']]
        if ep_version_id is not None:
            for c in catalog:
                c['endpoints'] = [e for e in c['endpoints']
                                  if e['versionId'] == ep_version_id]
            # Remove catalog entries with no endpoints
            catalog = \
                [c for c in catalog if c['endpoints']]

        if not catalog:
            raise NoEndpoints(ep_name, ep_type,
                              ep_region, ep_version_id)
        else:
            return catalog
    except KeyError:
        raise NoEndpoints()

917

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# --------------------------------------------------------------------
# Private functions
920
# We want _do_request to be a distinct function
921
# so that we can replace it during unit tests.
922
def _do_request(conn, method, url, **kwargs):
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    """The actual request. This function can easily be mocked"""
    conn.request(method, url, **kwargs)
    response = conn.getresponse()
    length = response.getheader('content-length', None)
    data = response.read(length)
    status = int(response.status)
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    message = response.reason
    return (message, data, status)