ganeti.utils_unittest.py 21.5 KB
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#!/usr/bin/python
#

# Copyright (C) 2006, 2007 Google Inc.
#
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
# General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
# 02110-1301, USA.


"""Script for unittesting the utils module"""

import unittest
import os
import time
import tempfile
import os.path
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import os
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import md5
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import signal
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import socket
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import shutil
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import re
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import tempfile
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import ganeti
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import testutils
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from ganeti import constants
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from ganeti import utils
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from ganeti.utils import IsProcessAlive, RunCmd, \
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     RemoveFile, CheckDict, MatchNameComponent, FormatUnit, \
     ParseUnit, AddAuthorizedKey, RemoveAuthorizedKey, \
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     ShellQuote, ShellQuoteArgs, TcpPing, ListVisibleFiles, \
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     SetEtcHostsEntry, RemoveEtcHostsEntry, FirstFree
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from ganeti.errors import LockError, UnitParseError

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def _ChildHandler(signal, stack):
  global _ChildFlag
  _ChildFlag = True
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class TestIsProcessAlive(unittest.TestCase):
  """Testing case for IsProcessAlive"""
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  def setUp(self):
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    global _ChildFlag
    # create a (most probably) non-existing process-id
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    self.pid_non_existing = os.fork()
    if self.pid_non_existing == 0:
      os._exit(0)
    elif self.pid_non_existing > 0:
      os.waitpid(self.pid_non_existing, 0)
    else:
      raise SystemError("can't fork")
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    _ChildFlag = False
    # Use _ChildHandler for SIGCHLD
    self.chldOrig = signal.signal(signal.SIGCHLD, _ChildHandler)
    # create a zombie
    self.pid_zombie = os.fork()
    if self.pid_zombie == 0:
      os._exit(0)
    elif self.pid_zombie < 0:
      raise SystemError("can't fork")
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  def tearDown(self):
    signal.signal(signal.SIGCHLD, self.chldOrig)
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  def testExists(self):
    mypid = os.getpid()
    self.assert_(IsProcessAlive(mypid),
                 "can't find myself running")

  def testZombie(self):
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    global _ChildFlag
    timeout = 10

    while not _ChildFlag:
      if timeout >= 0:
        time.sleep(0.2)
        timeout -= 0.2
      else:
        self.fail("timed out waiting for child's signal")
        break # not executed...

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    self.assert_(not IsProcessAlive(self.pid_zombie),
                 "zombie not detected as zombie")

  def testNotExisting(self):
    self.assert_(not IsProcessAlive(self.pid_non_existing),
                 "noexisting process detected")

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class TestPidFileFunctions(unittest.TestCase):
  """Tests for WritePidFile, RemovePidFile and IsPidFileAlive"""

  def setUp(self):
    self.dir = tempfile.mkdtemp()
    self.f_dpn = lambda name: os.path.join(self.dir, "%s.pid" % name)
    utils._DaemonPidFileName = self.f_dpn

  def testPidFileFunctions(self):
    utils.WritePidFile('test')
    self.assert_(os.path.exists(self.f_dpn('test')))
    self.assert_(utils.IsPidFileAlive(self.f_dpn('test')))
    utils.RemovePidFile('test')
    self.assert_(not os.path.exists(self.f_dpn('test')))

  def tearDown(self):
    os.rmdir(self.dir)

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class TestRunCmd(unittest.TestCase):
  """Testing case for the RunCmd function"""

  def setUp(self):
    self.magic = time.ctime() + " ganeti test"

  def testOk(self):
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    """Test successful exit code"""
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    result = RunCmd("/bin/sh -c 'exit 0'")
    self.assertEqual(result.exit_code, 0)

  def testFail(self):
    """Test fail exit code"""
    result = RunCmd("/bin/sh -c 'exit 1'")
    self.assertEqual(result.exit_code, 1)


  def testStdout(self):
    """Test standard output"""
    cmd = 'echo -n "%s"' % self.magic
    result = RunCmd("/bin/sh -c '%s'" % cmd)
    self.assertEqual(result.stdout, self.magic)


  def testStderr(self):
    """Test standard error"""
    cmd = 'echo -n "%s"' % self.magic
    result = RunCmd("/bin/sh -c '%s' 1>&2" % cmd)
    self.assertEqual(result.stderr, self.magic)


  def testCombined(self):
    """Test combined output"""
    cmd = 'echo -n "A%s"; echo -n "B%s" 1>&2' % (self.magic, self.magic)
    result = RunCmd("/bin/sh -c '%s'" % cmd)
    self.assertEqual(result.output, "A" + self.magic + "B" + self.magic)

  def testSignal(self):
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    """Test signal"""
    result = RunCmd(["python", "-c", "import os; os.kill(os.getpid(), 15)"])
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    self.assertEqual(result.signal, 15)

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  def testListRun(self):
    """Test list runs"""
    result = RunCmd(["true"])
    self.assertEqual(result.signal, None)
    self.assertEqual(result.exit_code, 0)
    result = RunCmd(["/bin/sh", "-c", "exit 1"])
    self.assertEqual(result.signal, None)
    self.assertEqual(result.exit_code, 1)
    result = RunCmd(["echo", "-n", self.magic])
    self.assertEqual(result.signal, None)
    self.assertEqual(result.exit_code, 0)
    self.assertEqual(result.stdout, self.magic)

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  def testLang(self):
    """Test locale environment"""
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    old_env = os.environ.copy()
    try:
      os.environ["LANG"] = "en_US.UTF-8"
      os.environ["LC_ALL"] = "en_US.UTF-8"
      result = RunCmd(["locale"])
      for line in result.output.splitlines():
        key, value = line.split("=", 1)
        # Ignore these variables, they're overridden by LC_ALL
        if key == "LANG" or key == "LANGUAGE":
          continue
        self.failIf(value and value != "C" and value != '"C"',
            "Variable %s is set to the invalid value '%s'" % (key, value))
    finally:
      os.environ = old_env
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class TestRemoveFile(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for the RemoveFile function"""

  def setUp(self):
    """Create a temp dir and file for each case"""
    self.tmpdir = tempfile.mkdtemp('', 'ganeti-unittest-')
    fd, self.tmpfile = tempfile.mkstemp('', '', self.tmpdir)
    os.close(fd)

  def tearDown(self):
    if os.path.exists(self.tmpfile):
      os.unlink(self.tmpfile)
    os.rmdir(self.tmpdir)


  def testIgnoreDirs(self):
    """Test that RemoveFile() ignores directories"""
    self.assertEqual(None, RemoveFile(self.tmpdir))


  def testIgnoreNotExisting(self):
    """Test that RemoveFile() ignores non-existing files"""
    RemoveFile(self.tmpfile)
    RemoveFile(self.tmpfile)


  def testRemoveFile(self):
    """Test that RemoveFile does remove a file"""
    RemoveFile(self.tmpfile)
    if os.path.exists(self.tmpfile):
      self.fail("File '%s' not removed" % self.tmpfile)


  def testRemoveSymlink(self):
    """Test that RemoveFile does remove symlinks"""
    symlink = self.tmpdir + "/symlink"
    os.symlink("no-such-file", symlink)
    RemoveFile(symlink)
    if os.path.exists(symlink):
      self.fail("File '%s' not removed" % symlink)
    os.symlink(self.tmpfile, symlink)
    RemoveFile(symlink)
    if os.path.exists(symlink):
      self.fail("File '%s' not removed" % symlink)


class TestCheckdict(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for the CheckDict function"""

  def testAdd(self):
    """Test that CheckDict adds a missing key with the correct value"""

    tgt = {'a':1}
    tmpl = {'b': 2}
    CheckDict(tgt, tmpl)
    if 'b' not in tgt or tgt['b'] != 2:
      self.fail("Failed to update dict")


  def testNoUpdate(self):
    """Test that CheckDict does not overwrite an existing key"""
    tgt = {'a':1, 'b': 3}
    tmpl = {'b': 2}
    CheckDict(tgt, tmpl)
    self.failUnlessEqual(tgt['b'], 3)


class TestMatchNameComponent(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for the MatchNameComponent function"""

  def testEmptyList(self):
    """Test that there is no match against an empty list"""

    self.failUnlessEqual(MatchNameComponent("", []), None)
    self.failUnlessEqual(MatchNameComponent("test", []), None)

  def testSingleMatch(self):
    """Test that a single match is performed correctly"""
    mlist = ["test1.example.com", "test2.example.com", "test3.example.com"]
    for key in "test2", "test2.example", "test2.example.com":
      self.failUnlessEqual(MatchNameComponent(key, mlist), mlist[1])

  def testMultipleMatches(self):
    """Test that a multiple match is returned as None"""
    mlist = ["test1.example.com", "test1.example.org", "test1.example.net"]
    for key in "test1", "test1.example":
      self.failUnlessEqual(MatchNameComponent(key, mlist), None)


class TestFormatUnit(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for the FormatUnit function"""

  def testMiB(self):
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(1), '1M')
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(100), '100M')
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(1023), '1023M')

  def testGiB(self):
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(1024), '1.0G')
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(1536), '1.5G')
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(17133), '16.7G')
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(1024 * 1024 - 1), '1024.0G')

  def testTiB(self):
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(1024 * 1024), '1.0T')
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(5120 * 1024), '5.0T')
    self.assertEqual(FormatUnit(29829 * 1024), '29.1T')


class TestParseUnit(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for the ParseUnit function"""

  SCALES = (('', 1),
            ('M', 1), ('G', 1024), ('T', 1024 * 1024),
            ('MB', 1), ('GB', 1024), ('TB', 1024 * 1024),
            ('MiB', 1), ('GiB', 1024), ('TiB', 1024 * 1024))

  def testRounding(self):
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('0'), 0)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('1'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('2'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('3'), 4)

    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('124'), 124)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('125'), 128)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('126'), 128)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('127'), 128)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('128'), 128)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('129'), 132)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('130'), 132)

  def testFloating(self):
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('0'), 0)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('0.5'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('1.75'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('1.99'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('2.00'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('2.01'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('3.99'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('4.00'), 4)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('4.01'), 8)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('1.5G'), 1536)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('1.8G'), 1844)
    self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('8.28T'), 8682212)

  def testSuffixes(self):
    for sep in ('', ' ', '   ', "\t", "\t "):
      for suffix, scale in TestParseUnit.SCALES:
        for func in (lambda x: x, str.lower, str.upper):
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          self.assertEqual(ParseUnit('1024' + sep + func(suffix)),
                           1024 * scale)
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  def testInvalidInput(self):
    for sep in ('-', '_', ',', 'a'):
      for suffix, _ in TestParseUnit.SCALES:
        self.assertRaises(UnitParseError, ParseUnit, '1' + sep + suffix)

    for suffix, _ in TestParseUnit.SCALES:
      self.assertRaises(UnitParseError, ParseUnit, '1,3' + suffix)


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class TestSshKeys(testutils.GanetiTestCase):
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  """Test case for the AddAuthorizedKey function"""

  KEY_A = 'ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU root@key-a'
  KEY_B = ('command="/usr/bin/fooserver -t --verbose",from="1.2.3.4" '
           'ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w520smc01ms0jfJs22 root@key-b')

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  def setUp(self):
    (fd, self.tmpname) = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix='ganeti-test')
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    try:
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      handle = os.fdopen(fd, 'w')
      try:
        handle.write("%s\n" % TestSshKeys.KEY_A)
        handle.write("%s\n" % TestSshKeys.KEY_B)
      finally:
        handle.close()
    except:
      utils.RemoveFile(self.tmpname)
      raise
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  def tearDown(self):
    utils.RemoveFile(self.tmpname)
    del self.tmpname
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  def testAddingNewKey(self):
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    AddAuthorizedKey(self.tmpname, 'ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACB root@test')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU root@key-a\n"
      'command="/usr/bin/fooserver -t --verbose",from="1.2.3.4"'
      " ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w520smc01ms0jfJs22 root@key-b\n"
      "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACB root@test\n")
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  def testAddingAlmostButNotCompletelyTheSameKey(self):
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    AddAuthorizedKey(self.tmpname,
        'ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU root@test')

    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU root@key-a\n"
      'command="/usr/bin/fooserver -t --verbose",from="1.2.3.4"'
      " ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w520smc01ms0jfJs22 root@key-b\n"
      "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU root@test\n")
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  def testAddingExistingKeyWithSomeMoreSpaces(self):
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    AddAuthorizedKey(self.tmpname,
        'ssh-dss  AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU   root@key-a')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU root@key-a\n"
      'command="/usr/bin/fooserver -t --verbose",from="1.2.3.4"'
      " ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w520smc01ms0jfJs22 root@key-b\n")
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  def testRemovingExistingKeyWithSomeMoreSpaces(self):
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    RemoveAuthorizedKey(self.tmpname,
        'ssh-dss  AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU   root@key-a')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      'command="/usr/bin/fooserver -t --verbose",from="1.2.3.4"'
      " ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w520smc01ms0jfJs22 root@key-b\n")
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  def testRemovingNonExistingKey(self):
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    RemoveAuthorizedKey(self.tmpname,
        'ssh-dss  AAAAB3Nsdfj230xxjxJjsjwjsjdjU   root@test')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w5256closdj32mZaQU root@key-a\n"
      'command="/usr/bin/fooserver -t --verbose",from="1.2.3.4"'
      " ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1w520smc01ms0jfJs22 root@key-b\n")
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class TestEtcHosts(testutils.GanetiTestCase):
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  """Test functions modifying /etc/hosts"""

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  def setUp(self):
    (fd, self.tmpname) = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix='ganeti-test')
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    try:
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      handle = os.fdopen(fd, 'w')
      try:
        handle.write('# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n')
        handle.write('127.0.0.1\tlocalhost\n')
        handle.write('192.168.1.1 router gw\n')
      finally:
        handle.close()
    except:
      utils.RemoveFile(self.tmpname)
      raise
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  def tearDown(self):
    utils.RemoveFile(self.tmpname)
    del self.tmpname
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  def testSettingNewIp(self):
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    SetEtcHostsEntry(self.tmpname, '1.2.3.4', 'myhost.domain.tld', ['myhost'])
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n"
      "127.0.0.1\tlocalhost\n"
      "192.168.1.1 router gw\n"
      "1.2.3.4\tmyhost.domain.tld myhost\n")
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  def testSettingExistingIp(self):
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    SetEtcHostsEntry(self.tmpname, '192.168.1.1', 'myhost.domain.tld',
                     ['myhost'])
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n"
      "127.0.0.1\tlocalhost\n"
      "192.168.1.1\tmyhost.domain.tld myhost\n")
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  def testSettingDuplicateName(self):
    SetEtcHostsEntry(self.tmpname, '1.2.3.4', 'myhost', ['myhost'])

    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n"
      "127.0.0.1\tlocalhost\n"
      "192.168.1.1 router gw\n"
      "1.2.3.4\tmyhost\n")

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  def testRemovingExistingHost(self):
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    RemoveEtcHostsEntry(self.tmpname, 'router')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n"
      "127.0.0.1\tlocalhost\n"
      "192.168.1.1 gw\n")
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  def testRemovingSingleExistingHost(self):
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    RemoveEtcHostsEntry(self.tmpname, 'localhost')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n"
      "192.168.1.1 router gw\n")
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  def testRemovingNonExistingHost(self):
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    RemoveEtcHostsEntry(self.tmpname, 'myhost')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n"
      "127.0.0.1\tlocalhost\n"
      "192.168.1.1 router gw\n")
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  def testRemovingAlias(self):
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    RemoveEtcHostsEntry(self.tmpname, 'gw')
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    self.assertFileContent(self.tmpname,
      "# This is a test file for /etc/hosts\n"
      "127.0.0.1\tlocalhost\n"
      "192.168.1.1 router\n")
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class TestShellQuoting(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for shell quoting functions"""

  def testShellQuote(self):
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuote('abc'), "abc")
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuote('ab"c'), "'ab\"c'")
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuote("a'bc"), "'a'\\''bc'")
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuote("a b c"), "'a b c'")
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuote("a b\\ c"), "'a b\\ c'")

  def testShellQuoteArgs(self):
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuoteArgs(['a', 'b', 'c']), "a b c")
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuoteArgs(['a', 'b"', 'c']), "a 'b\"' c")
    self.assertEqual(ShellQuoteArgs(['a', 'b\'', 'c']), "a 'b'\\\''' c")


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class TestTcpPing(unittest.TestCase):
  """Testcase for TCP version of ping - against listen(2)ing port"""

  def setUp(self):
    self.listener = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
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    self.listener.bind((constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS, 0))
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    self.listenerport = self.listener.getsockname()[1]
    self.listener.listen(1)

  def tearDown(self):
    self.listener.shutdown(socket.SHUT_RDWR)
    del self.listener
    del self.listenerport

  def testTcpPingToLocalHostAccept(self):
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    self.assert_(TcpPing(constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
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                         self.listenerport,
                         timeout=10,
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                         live_port_needed=True,
                         source=constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
                         ),
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                 "failed to connect to test listener")

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    self.assert_(TcpPing(constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
                         self.listenerport,
                         timeout=10,
                         live_port_needed=True,
                         ),
                 "failed to connect to test listener (no source)")

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class TestTcpPingDeaf(unittest.TestCase):
  """Testcase for TCP version of ping - against non listen(2)ing port"""

  def setUp(self):
    self.deaflistener = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
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    self.deaflistener.bind((constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS, 0))
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    self.deaflistenerport = self.deaflistener.getsockname()[1]

  def tearDown(self):
    del self.deaflistener
    del self.deaflistenerport

  def testTcpPingToLocalHostAcceptDeaf(self):
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    self.failIf(TcpPing(constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
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                        self.deaflistenerport,
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                        timeout=constants.TCP_PING_TIMEOUT,
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                        live_port_needed=True,
                        source=constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
                        ), # need successful connect(2)
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                "successfully connected to deaf listener")

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    self.failIf(TcpPing(constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
                        self.deaflistenerport,
                        timeout=constants.TCP_PING_TIMEOUT,
                        live_port_needed=True,
                        ), # need successful connect(2)
                "successfully connected to deaf listener (no source addr)")

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  def testTcpPingToLocalHostNoAccept(self):
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    self.assert_(TcpPing(constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
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                         self.deaflistenerport,
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                         timeout=constants.TCP_PING_TIMEOUT,
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                         live_port_needed=False,
                         source=constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
                         ), # ECONNREFUSED is OK
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                 "failed to ping alive host on deaf port")

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    self.assert_(TcpPing(constants.LOCALHOST_IP_ADDRESS,
                         self.deaflistenerport,
                         timeout=constants.TCP_PING_TIMEOUT,
                         live_port_needed=False,
                         ), # ECONNREFUSED is OK
                 "failed to ping alive host on deaf port (no source addr)")

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class TestListVisibleFiles(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for ListVisibleFiles"""

  def setUp(self):
    self.path = tempfile.mkdtemp()

  def tearDown(self):
    shutil.rmtree(self.path)

  def _test(self, files, expected):
    # Sort a copy
    expected = expected[:]
    expected.sort()

    for name in files:
      f = open(os.path.join(self.path, name), 'w')
      try:
        f.write("Test\n")
      finally:
        f.close()

    found = ListVisibleFiles(self.path)
    found.sort()

    self.assertEqual(found, expected)

  def testAllVisible(self):
    files = ["a", "b", "c"]
    expected = files
    self._test(files, expected)

  def testNoneVisible(self):
    files = [".a", ".b", ".c"]
    expected = []
    self._test(files, expected)

  def testSomeVisible(self):
    files = ["a", "b", ".c"]
    expected = ["a", "b"]
    self._test(files, expected)


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class TestNewUUID(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for NewUUID"""
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  _re_uuid = re.compile('^[a-f0-9]{8}-[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{4}-'
                        '[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{12}$')

  def runTest(self):
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    self.failUnless(self._re_uuid.match(utils.NewUUID()))
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class TestUniqueSequence(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for UniqueSequence"""

  def _test(self, input, expected):
    self.assertEqual(utils.UniqueSequence(input), expected)

  def runTest(self):
    # Ordered input
    self._test([1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3])
    self._test([1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3], [1, 2, 3])
    self._test([1, 2, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3])
    self._test([1, 2, 3, 3], [1, 2, 3])

    # Unordered input
    self._test([1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3])
    self._test([1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2], [1, 2, 3])

    # Strings
    self._test(["a", "a"], ["a"])
    self._test(["a", "b"], ["a", "b"])
    self._test(["a", "b", "a"], ["a", "b"])

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class TestFirstFree(unittest.TestCase):
  """Test case for the FirstFree function"""

  def test(self):
    """Test FirstFree"""
    self.failUnlessEqual(FirstFree([0, 1, 3]), 2)
    self.failUnlessEqual(FirstFree([]), None)
    self.failUnlessEqual(FirstFree([3, 4, 6]), 0)
    self.failUnlessEqual(FirstFree([3, 4, 6], base=3), 5)
    self.failUnlessRaises(AssertionError, FirstFree, [0, 3, 4, 6], base=3)
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if __name__ == '__main__':
  unittest.main()