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<!doctype refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN" [

  <!-- Fill in your name for FIRSTNAME and SURNAME. -->
  <!-- Please adjust the date whenever revising the manpage. -->
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  <!ENTITY dhdate      "<date>February 11, 2009</date>">
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  <!-- SECTION should be 1-8, maybe w/ subsection other parameters are
       allowed: see man(7), man(1). -->
  <!ENTITY dhsection   "<manvolnum>8</manvolnum>">
  <!ENTITY dhucpackage "<refentrytitle>gnt-instance</refentrytitle>">
  <!ENTITY dhpackage   "gnt-instance">

  <!ENTITY debian      "<productname>Debian</productname>">
  <!ENTITY gnu         "<acronym>GNU</acronym>">
  <!ENTITY gpl         "&gnu; <acronym>GPL</acronym>">
  <!ENTITY footer SYSTEM "footer.sgml">
]>

<refentry>
  <refentryinfo>
    <copyright>
      <year>2006</year>
      <year>2007</year>
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      <year>2008</year>
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      <year>2009</year>
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      <holder>Google Inc.</holder>
    </copyright>
    &dhdate;
  </refentryinfo>
  <refmeta>
    &dhucpackage;

    &dhsection;
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    <refmiscinfo>ganeti 2.0</refmiscinfo>
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  </refmeta>
  <refnamediv>
    <refname>&dhpackage;</refname>

    <refpurpose>ganeti instance administration</refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>
  <refsynopsisdiv>
    <cmdsynopsis>
      <command>&dhpackage; </command>

      <arg choice="req">command</arg>
      <arg>arguments...</arg>
    </cmdsynopsis>
  </refsynopsisdiv>
  <refsect1>
    <title>DESCRIPTION</title>

    <para>
      The <command>&dhpackage;</command> is used for instance
      administration in the ganeti system.
    </para>

  </refsect1>
  <refsect1>
    <title>COMMANDS</title>

    <refsect2>
      <title>Creation/removal/querying</title>

      <refsect3>
        <title>ADD</title>
        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>add</command>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg choice="req">-t<group choice="req">
              <arg>diskless</arg>
              <arg>file</arg>
              <arg>plain</arg>
              <arg>drbd</arg>
            </group></arg>
          <sbr>

          <group choice="req">
            <arg rep="repeat">--disk=<replaceable>N</replaceable>:size=<replaceable>VAL</replaceable><arg>,mode=<replaceable>ro|rw</replaceable></arg></arg>
            <arg>-s <replaceable>SIZE</replaceable></arg>
          </group>
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          <sbr>
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          <group>
            <arg rep="repeat">--net=<replaceable>N</replaceable><arg rep="repeat">:options</arg></arg>
            <arg>--no-nics</arg>
          </group>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg>-B <replaceable>BEPARAMS</replaceable></arg>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg>-H <replaceable>HYPERVISOR</replaceable><arg>:<arg choice="plain" rep="repeat">option=<replaceable>value</replaceable></arg></arg></arg>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg>--file-storage-dir <replaceable>dir_path</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg>--file-driver<group choice="req">
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              <arg>loop</arg>
              <arg>blktap</arg>
            </group></arg>
          <sbr>
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          <group choice="req">
            <arg>-n <replaceable>node<optional>:secondary-node</optional></replaceable></arg>
            <arg>--iallocator <replaceable>name</replaceable></arg>
          </group>
          <sbr>

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          <arg choice="req">-o <replaceable>os-type</replaceable></arg>
          <sbr>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
          <sbr>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>
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        <para>
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          Creates a new instance on the specified host. The
          <replaceable>instance</replaceable> argument must be in DNS,
          but depending on the bridge setup, need not be in the same
          network as the nodes in the cluster.
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        </para>

        <para>
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          The <option>disk</option> option specifies the parameters
          for the disks of the instance. The numbering of disks starts
          at zero, and at least one disk needs to be passed. For each
          disk, at least the size needs to be given, and optionally
          the access mode (read-only or the default of read-write) can
          also be specified.  The size is interpreted (when no unit is
          given) in mebibytes. You can also use one of the suffixes
          <literal>m</literal>, <literal>g</literal> or
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          <literal>t</literal> to specificy the exact the units used;
          these suffixes map to mebibytes, gibibytes and tebibytes.
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        </para>

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        <para>
          Alternatively, a single-disk instance can be created via the
          <option>-s</option> option which takes a single argument,
          the size of the disk. This is similar to the Ganeti 1.2
          version (but will only create one disk).
        </para>

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        <para>
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          The minimum disk specification is therefore
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          <userinput>--disk 0:size=20G</userinput> (or <userinput>-s
          20G</userinput> when using the <option>-s</option> option),
          and a three-disk instance can be specified as
          <userinput>--disk 0:size=20G --disk 1:size=4G --disk
          2:size=100G</userinput>.
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        </para>

        <para>
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          The NICs of the instances can be specified via the
          <option>--nic</option> option. By default, one NIC is
          created for the instance, with a random MAC, and connected
          to the default bridge. Each NIC can take up to three
          parameters (all optional):
          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>mac</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>either a value or <constant>GENERATE</constant>
                  to generate a new unique MAC</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>ip</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>specifies the IP address assigned to the
                  instance from the Ganeti side (this is not necessarily
                  what the instance will use, but what the node expects
                  the instance to use)</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>bridge</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>specifies the bridge to attach this NIC
                  to</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
          </variablelist>
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        </para>

        <para>
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          Alternatively, if no network is desired for the instance, you
          can prevent the default of one NIC with the
          <option>--no-nics</option> option.
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        </para>

        <para>
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          The <option>-o</option> options specifies the operating
          system to be installed. The available operating systems can
          be listed with <command>gnt-os list</command>.
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        </para>

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        <para>
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          The <option>-B</option> option specifies the backend
          parameters for the instance. If no such parameters are
          specified, the values are inherited from the cluster. Possible
          parameters are:
          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>memory</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the memory size of the instance; as usual,
                  suffixes can be used to denote the unit, otherwise the
                  value is taken in mebibites</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>vcpus</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the number of VCPUs to assign to the instance
                  (if this value makes sense for the hypervisor)</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>auto_balance</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>whether the instance is considered in the N+1
                  cluster checks (enough redundancy in the cluster to
                  survive a node failure)</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
          </variablelist>
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        </para>

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        <para>
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          The <option>-H</option> option specified the hypervisor to
          use for the instance (must be one of the enabled hypervisors
          on the cluster) and optionally custom parameters for this
          instance. If not other options are used (i.e. the invocation
          is just <userinput>-H
          <replaceable>NAME</replaceable></userinput>) the instance
          will inherit the cluster options. The defaults below show
          the cluster defaults at cluster creation time.
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        </para>

        <para>
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          The possible hypervisor options are as follows:
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          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
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              <term>boot_order</term>
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              <listitem>
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                <simpara>Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM
                hypervisors.</simpara>

                <simpara>A string value denoting the boot order. This
                has different meaning for the Xen HVM hypervisor and
                for the KVM one.</simpara>

                <simpara>
                  For Xen HVM, The boot order is a string of letters
                  listing the boot devices, with valid device letters
                  being:
                </simpara>
                  <variablelist>
                    <varlistentry>
                      <term>a</term>
                      <listitem>
                        <para>
                          floppy drive
                        </para>
                      </listitem>
                    </varlistentry>
                    <varlistentry>
                      <term>c</term>
                      <listitem>
                        <para>
                          hard disk
                        </para>
                      </listitem>
                    </varlistentry>
                    <varlistentry>
                      <term>d</term>
                      <listitem>
                        <para>
                          CDROM drive
                        </para>
                      </listitem>
                    </varlistentry>
                    <varlistentry>
                      <term>n</term>
                      <listitem>
                        <para>
                          network boot (PXE)
                        </para>
                      </listitem>
                    </varlistentry>
                  </variablelist>
                <simpara>
                  The default is not to set an HVM boot order which is
                  interpreted as 'dc'.
                </simpara>

              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>cdrom_image_path</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>

                <simpara>The path to a CDROM image to attach to the
                instance.</simpara>

              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic_type</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>

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                <para>
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                  This parameter determines the way the network cards
                  are presented to the instance. The possible options are:
                  <simplelist>
                    <member>rtl8139 (default for Xen HVM) (HVM & KVM)</member>
                    <member>ne2k_isa (HVM & KVM)</member>
                    <member>ne2k_pci (HVM & KVM)</member>
                    <member>i82551 (KVM)</member>
                    <member>i82557b (KVM)</member>
                    <member>i82559er (KVM)</member>
                    <member>pcnet (KVM)</member>
                    <member>e1000 (KVM)</member>
                    <member>paravirtual (default for KVM) (HVM & KVM)</member>
                  </simplelist>
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                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
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              <term>disk_type</term>
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              <listitem>
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                <simpara>Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>

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                <para>
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                  This parameter determines the way the disks are
                  presented to the instance. The possible options are:
                  <simplelist>
                    <member>ioemu (default for HVM & KVM) (HVM & KVM)</member>
                    <member>ide (HVM & KVM)</member>
                    <member>scsi (KVM)</member>
                    <member>sd (KVM)</member>
                    <member>mtd (KVM)</member>
                    <member>pflash (KVM)</member>
                  </simplelist>
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                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
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              <term>vnc_bind_address</term>
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              <listitem>
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                <simpara>Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>

                <para>Specifies the address that the VNC listener for
                this instance should bind to. Valid values are IPv4
                addresses. Use the address 0.0.0.0 to bind to all
                available interfaces (this is the default) or specify
                the address of one of the interfaces on the node to
                restrict listening to that interface.</para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

            <varlistentry>
              <term>vnc_tls</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the KVM hypervisor.</simpara>

                <simpara>A boolean option that controls whether the
                VNC connection is secured with TLS.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

            <varlistentry>
              <term>vnc_x509_path</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the KVM hypervisor.</simpara>

                <para>If <option>vnc_tls</option> is enabled, this
                options specifies the path to the x509 certificate to
                use.</para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

            <varlistentry>
              <term>vnc_x509_verify</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the KVM hypervisor.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

            <varlistentry>
              <term>acpi</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>

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                <para>
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                  A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor
                  should enable ACPI support for this instance. By
                  default, ACPI is disabled.
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                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
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              <term>pae</term>
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              <listitem>
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                <simpara>Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>

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                <para>
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                  A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor
                  should enabled PAE support for this instance. The
                  default is false, disabling PAE support.
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                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

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            <varlistentry>
              <term>kernel_path</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>
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                <para>
                  This option specifies the path (on the node) to the
                  kernel to boot the instance with. Xen PVM instances
                  always require this, while for KVM if this option is
                  empty, it will cause the machine to load the kernel
                  from its disks.
                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>kernel_args</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>

                <para>
                  This options specifies extra arguments to the kernel
                  that will be loaded.  device. This is always used
                  for Xen PVM, while for KVM it is only used if the
                  <option>kernel_path</option> option is also
                  specified.
                </para>

                <para>
                  The default setting for this value is simply
                  <constant>"ro"</constant>, which mounts the root
                  disk (initially) in read-only one. For example,
                  setting this to <userinput>single</userinput> will
                  cause the instance to start in single-user mode.
                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

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            <varlistentry>
              <term>initrd_path</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>
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                <para>
                  This option specifies the path (on the node) to the
                  initrd to boot the instance with. Xen PVM instances
                  can use this always, while for KVM if this option is
                  only used if the <option>kernel_path</option> option
                  is also specified.
                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>root_path</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.</simpara>
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                <para>
                  This options specifies the name of the root
                  device. This is always needed for Xen PVM, while for
                  KVM it is only used if the
                  <option>kernel_path</option> option is also
                  specified.
                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

            <varlistentry>
              <term>serial_console</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Valid for the KVM hypervisor.</simpara>

                <simpara>This boolean option specifies whether to
                emulate a serial console for the instance.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
          </variablelist>
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        </para>

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        <para>
        </para>

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        <para>
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          The <option>--iallocator</option> option specifies the instance
          allocator plugin to use. If you pass in this option the allocator
          will select nodes for this instance automatically, so you don't need
          to pass them with the <option>-n</option> option. For more
          information please refer to the instance allocator documentation.
        </para>

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        <para>
          The <option>-t</option> options specifies the disk layout type for
          the instance. The available choices are:
          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>diskless</term>
              <listitem>
                <para>
                  This creates an instance with no disks. Its useful for
                  testing only (or other special cases).
                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>file</term>
              <listitem>
                <para>Disk devices will be regular files.</para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>plain</term>
              <listitem>
                <para>Disk devices will be logical volumes.</para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>drbd</term>
              <listitem>
                <para>
                  Disk devices will be drbd (version 8.x) on top of
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                  lvm volumes.
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                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
          </variablelist>
        </para>

        <para>
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          The optional second value of the <option>--node</option> is used for
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          the drbd template type and specifies the remote node.
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        </para>

        <para>
          If you do not want gnt-instance to wait for the disk mirror
          to be synced, use the <option>--no-wait-for-sync</option>
          option.
        </para>

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        <para>
          The <option>--file-storage-dir</option> specifies the relative path
          under the cluster-wide file storage directory to store file-based
          disks. It is useful for having different subdirectories for
          different instances. The full path of the directory where the disk
          files are stored will consist of cluster-wide file storage directory
          + optional subdirectory + instance name. Example:
          /srv/ganeti/file-storage/mysubdir/instance1.example.com. This option
          is only relevant for instances using the file storage backend.
        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--file-driver</option> specifies the driver to use for
          file-based disks. Note that currently these drivers work with the
          xen hypervisor only. This option is only relevant for instances using
          the file storage backend. The available choices are:
          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>loop</term>
              <listitem>
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                <para>
                  Kernel loopback driver. This driver uses loopback
                  devices to access the filesystem within the
                  file. However, running I/O intensive applications in
                  your instance using the loop driver might result in
                  slowdowns.  Furthermore, if you use the loopback
                  driver consider increasing the maximum amount of
                  loopback devices (on most systems it's 8) using the
                  max_loop param.
                </para>
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              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>blktap</term>
              <listitem>
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                <para>The blktap driver (for Xen hypervisors). In
                order to be able to use the blktap driver you should
                check if the 'blktapctrl' user space disk agent is
                running (usually automatically started via xend). This
                user-level disk I/O interface has the advantage of
                better performance. Especially if you use a network
                file system (e.g. NFS) to store your instances this is
                the recommended choice.
                </para>
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              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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          </variablelist>
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        </para>

        <para>
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          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
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        </para>
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        <para>
          Example:
          <screen>
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  -n node1.example.com:node2.example.com instance2.example.com
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          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>BATCH-CREATE</title>
        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>batch-create</command>
          <arg choice="req">instances_file.json</arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          This command (similar to the Ganeti 1.2
          <command>batcher</command> tool) submits multiple instance
          creation jobs based on a definition file. The instance
          configurations do not encompass all the possible options for
          the <command>add</command> command, but only a subset.
        </para>

        <para>
          The instance file should be a valid-formed JSON file,
          containing a dictionary with instance name and instance
          parameters. The accepted parameters are:

          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>disk_size</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The size of the disks of the instance.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>disk_templace</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The disk template to use for the instance,
                the same as in the <command>add</command>
                command.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>backend</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>A dictionary of backend parameters.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>hypervisor</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>A dictionary with a single key (the
                hypervisor name), and as value the hypervisor
                options. If not passed, the default hypervisor and
                hypervisor options will be inherited.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>mac, ip, bridge</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Specifications for the one NIC that will be
                created for the instance.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>primary_node, secondary_node</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The primary and optionally the secondary node
                to use for the instance (in case an iallocator script
                is not used).</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>iallocator</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Instead of specifying the nodes, an
                iallocator script can be used to automatically compute
                them.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>start</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>whether to start the instance</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>ip_check</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Skip the check for already-in-use instance;
                see the description in the <command>add</command>
                command for details.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>file_storage_dir, file_driver</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Configuration for the <literal>file</literal>
                disk type, see the <command>add</command> command for
                details.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
          </variablelist>
        </para>

        <para>
          A simple definition for one instance can be (with most of
          the parameters taken from the cluster defaults):
          <screen>
{
  "instance3": {
    "template": "drbd",
    "os": "debootstrap",
    "disk_size": ["25G"],
    "iallocator": "dumb"
  },
  "instance5": {
    "template": "drbd",
    "os": "debootstrap",
    "disk_size": ["25G"],
    "iallocator": "dumb",
    "hypervisor": "xen-hvm",
    "hvparams": {"acpi": true},
    "backend": {"memory": 512}
  }
}
</screen>
        </para>

        <para>
          The command will display the job id for each submitted instance, as follows:
          <screen>
# gnt-instance batch-create instances.json
instance3: 11224
instance5: 11225
</screen>
        </para>

      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>REMOVE</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>remove</command>
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          <arg>--ignore-failures</arg>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Remove an instance. This will remove all data from the
          instance and there is <emphasis>no way back</emphasis>. If
          you are not sure if you use an instance again, use
          <command>shutdown</command> first and leave it in the
          shutdown state for a while.
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        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--ignore-failures</option> option will cause the
          removal to proceed even in the presence of errors during the
          removal of the instance (e.g. during the shutdown or the
          disk removal). If this option is not given, the command will
          stop at the first error.
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        </para>

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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>

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        <para>
          Example:
          <screen>
# gnt-instance remove instance1.example.com
          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>LIST</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>list</command>
          <arg>--no-headers</arg>
          <arg>--separator=<replaceable>SEPARATOR</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg>-o <replaceable>[+]FIELD,...</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg rep="repeat">instance</arg>
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        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Shows the currently configured instances with memory usage,
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          disk usage, the node they are running on, and their run
          status.
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        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--no-headers</option> option will skip the
          initial header line. The <option>--separator</option> option
          takes an argument which denotes what will be used between
          the output fields. Both these options are to help scripting.
        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>-o</option> option takes a comma-separated list
          of output fields. The available fields and their meaning
          are:
          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>name</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the instance name</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>os</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the OS of the instance</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>pnode</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the primary node of the instance</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>snodes</term>
              <listitem>
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                <simpara>comma-separated list of secondary nodes for the
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                  instance; usually this will be just one node</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>admin_state</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the desired state of the instance (either "yes"
                  or "no" denoting the instance should run or
                  not)</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>disk_template</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the disk template of the instance</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>oper_state</term>
              <listitem>
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                <simpara>the actual state of the instance; can be
                one of the values "running", "stopped", "(node
                down)"</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>status</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>combined form of admin_state and oper_stat;
                this can be one of:
                <computeroutput>ERROR_nodedown</computeroutput> if the
                node of the instance is down,
                <computeroutput>ERROR_down</computeroutput> if the
                instance should run but is down,
                <computeroutput>ERROR_up</computeroutput> if the
                instance should be stopped but is actually running,
                <computeroutput>ADMIN_down</computeroutput> if the
                instance has been stopped (and is stopped) and
                <computeroutput>running</computeroutput> if the
                instance is set to be running (and is
                running)</simpara>
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              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>oper_ram</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the actual memory usage of the instance as seen
                  by the hypervisor</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>ip</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the ip address ganeti recognizes as associated with
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                the first instance interface</simpara>
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              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>mac</term>
              <listitem>
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                <simpara>the first instance interface MAC address</simpara>
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              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>bridge</term>
              <listitem>
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                <simpara>the bridge of the first instance NIC
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                </simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>sda_size</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the size of the instance's first disk</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>sdb_size</term>
              <listitem>
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                <simpara>the size of the instance's second disk, if
                any</simpara>
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              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>vcpus</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the number of VCPUs allocated to the
                instance</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>tags</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>comma-separated list of the instances's
                tags</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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            <varlistentry>
              <term>serial_no</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>the so called 'serial number' of the
                instance; this is a numeric field that is incremented
                each time the instance is modified, and it can be used
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                to track modifications</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>network_port</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>If the instance has a network port assigned
                to it (e.g. for VNC connections), this will be shown,
                otherwise <literal>-</literal> will be
                displayed.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>beparams</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>A text format of the entire beparams for the
                instance. It's more useful to select individual fields
                from this dictionary, see below.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>disk.count</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The number of instance disks.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>disk.size/N</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The size of the instance's Nth disk. This is
                a more generic form of the <literal>sda_size</literal>
                and <literal>sdb_size</literal> fields.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>disk.sizes</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>A comma-separated list of the disk sizes for
                this instance.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>disk_usage</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The total disk space used by this instance on
                each of its nodes. This is not the instance-visible
                disk size, but the actual disk "cost" of the
                instance.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic.mac/N</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The MAC of the Nth instance NIC.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic.ip/N</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The IP address of the Nth instance NIC.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic.bridge/N</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The bridge the Nth instance NIC is attached
                to.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic.macs</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>A comma-separated list of all the MACs of the
                instance's NICs.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic.ips</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>A comma-separated list of all the IP
                addresses of the instance's NICs.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic.bridges</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>A comma-separated list of all the bridges of the
                instance's NICs.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>nic.count</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The number of instance nics.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>hv/<replaceable>NAME</replaceable></term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The value of the hypervisor parameter called
                <replaceable>NAME</replaceable>. For details of what
                hypervisor parameters exist and their meaning, see the
                <command>add</command> command.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>be/memory</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The configured memory for the instance.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>be/vcpus</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>The configured number of VCPUs for the
                instance.</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>be/auto_balance</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>Whether the instance is considered in N+1
                checks.</simpara>
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              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
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          </variablelist>
        </para>

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        <para>
          If the value of the option starts with the character
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          <constant>+</constant>, the new field(s) will be added to the
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          default list. This allows to quickly see the default list
          plus a few other fields, instead of retyping the entire list
          of fields.
        </para>

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        <para>
          There is a subtle grouping about the available output
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          fields: all fields except for <option>oper_state</option>,
          <option>oper_ram</option> and <option>status</option> are
          configuration value and not run-time values. So if you don't
          select any of the these fields, the query will be satisfied
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          instantly from the cluster configuration, without having to
          ask the remote nodes for the data. This can be helpful for
          big clusters when you only want some data and it makes sense
          to specify a reduced set of output fields.
        </para>

        <para>The default output field list is:
          <simplelist type="inline">
            <member>name</member>
            <member>os</member>
            <member>pnode</member>
            <member>admin_state</member>
            <member>oper_state</member>
            <member>oper_ram</member>
          </simplelist>.
        </para>
      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>INFO</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>info</command>
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          <group>
            <arg>-s</arg>
            <arg>--static</arg>
          </group>
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          <group choice="req">
            <arg>--all</arg>
            <arg rep="repeat"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
          </group>
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        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
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          Show detailed information about the given instance(s). This is
          different from <command>list</command> as it shows detailed data
          about the instance's disks (especially useful for the drbd disk 
          template).
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        </para>
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        <para>
          If the option <option>-s</option> is used, only information
          available in the configuration file is returned, without
          querying nodes, making the operation faster.
        </para>
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        <para>
          Use the <option>--all</option> to get info about all instances,
          rather than explicitely passing the ones you're interested in.
        </para>
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      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>MODIFY</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>modify</command>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg choice="opt">-H <replaceable>HYPERVISOR_PARAMETERS</replaceable></arg>
          <sbr>
          <arg choice="opt">-B <replaceable>BACKEND_PARAMETERS</replaceable></arg>
          <sbr>
          <group>
            <arg>--net add<replaceable><optional>:options</optional></replaceable></arg>
            <arg>--net remove</arg>
            <arg>--net <replaceable>N:options</replaceable></arg>
          </group>
          <sbr>
          <group>
            <arg>--disk add:size=<replaceable>SIZE</replaceable></arg>
            <arg>--disk remove</arg>
            <arg>--disk <replaceable>N</replaceable>:mode=<replaceable>MODE</replaceable></arg>
          </group>

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          <sbr>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
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          Modifies the memory size, number of vcpus, ip address, MAC
          address and/or bridge for an instance. It can also add and
          remove disks and NICs to/from the instance. Note that you
          need to give at least one of the arguments, otherwise the
          command complains.
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        </para>

        <para>
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          The <option>-H</option> option specifies hypervisor options
          in the form of <userinput>name=value[,...]</userinput>. For details which options can be specified, see the <command>add</command> command.
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        </para>

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        <para>
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          The <option>--disk
          add:size=<replaceable>SIZE</replaceable></option> option
          adds a disk to the instance. The <option>--disk
          remove</option> will remove the last disk of the
          instance. The <option>--disk
          <replaceable>N</replaceable>:mode=<replaceable>MODE</replaceable></option>
          option will change the mode of the Nth disk of the instance
          between read-only (<literal>ro</literal>) and read-write
          (<literal>rw</literal>).
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        </para>

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        <para>
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          The <option>--nic
          add:<replaceable>options</replaceable></option> option will
          add a new NIC to the instance. The available options are the
          same as in the <command>add</command> command (mac, ip,
          bridge). The <option>--nice remove</option> will remove the
          last NIC of the instance, while the <option>--nic
          <replaceable>N</replaceable>:<replaceable>options</replaceable></option>
          option will change the parameters of the Nth instance NIC.
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        </para>

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        <para>
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          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
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        </para>

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        <para>
          All the changes take effect at the next restart. If the
          instance is running, there is no effect on the instance.
        </para>
      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>REINSTALL</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>reinstall</command>
          <arg choice="opt">-o <replaceable>os-type</replaceable></arg>
          <arg choice="opt">-f <replaceable>force</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg>--select-os</arg>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
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          Reinstalls the operating system on the given instance. The
          instance must be stopped when running this command. If the
          <option>--os-type</option> is specified, the operating
          system is changed.
        </para>

        <para>
          Since reinstall is potentially dangerous command, the user
          will be required to confirm this action, unless the
          <option>-f</option> flag is passed.
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        <para>
          The <option>--select-os</option> option switches to an
          interactive OS reinstall. The user is prompted to select the OS
          template from the list of available OS templates.
        </para>
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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>


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      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>RENAME</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>rename</command>
          <arg>--no-ip-check</arg>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>new_name</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Renames the given instance. The instance must be stopped
          when running this command. The requirements for the new name
          are the same as for adding an instance: the new name must be
          resolvable and the IP it resolves to must not be reachable
          (in order to prevent duplicate IPs the next time the
          instance is started). The IP test can be skipped if the
          <option>--no-ip-check</option> option is passed.
        </para>
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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>

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      </refsect3>

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    </refsect2>

    <refsect2>
      <title>Starting/stopping/connecting to console</title>

      <refsect3>
        <title>STARTUP</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>startup</command>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg>--force</arg>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg>--force-multiple</arg>
          <sbr>
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          <group choice="opt">
            <arg>--instance</arg>
            <arg>--node</arg>
            <arg>--primary</arg>
            <arg>--secondary</arg>
            <arg>--all</arg>
          </group>
          <sbr>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
          <sbr>
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          <arg choice="opt"
          rep="repeat"><replaceable>name</replaceable></arg>
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        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
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          Starts one or more instances, depending on the following
          options. The four available modes are:
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          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term><option>--instance</option></term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>will start the instances given as arguments
                (at least one argument required); this is the default
                selection</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>--node</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>will start the instances who have the given
                node as either primary or secondary</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term><option>--primary</option></term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>will start all instances whose primary node
                is in the list of nodes passed as arguments (at least
                one node required)</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term><option>--secondary</option></term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>will start all instances whose secondary node
                is in the list of nodes passed as arguments (at least
                one node required)</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>--all</term>
              <listitem>
                <simpara>will start all instances in the cluster (no
                arguments accepted)</simpara>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
          </variablelist>
        </para>

        <para>
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          Note that although you can pass more than one selection
          option, the last one wins, so in order to guarantee the
          desired result, don't pass more than one such option.
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        </para>

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        <para>
          Use <option>--force</option> to start even if secondary disks are
          failing.
        </para>
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        <para>
          The <option>--force-multiple</option> will skip the
          interactive confirmation in the case the more than one
          instance will be affected.
        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>

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        <para>
          Example:
          <screen>
# gnt-instance start instance1.example.com
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# gnt-instance start --node node1.example.com node2.example.com
# gnt-instance start --all
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          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>SHUTDOWN</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>shutdown</command>
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          <sbr>
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          <arg>--force-multiple</arg>
          <sbr>
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          <group choice="opt">
            <arg>--instance</arg>
            <arg>--node</arg>
            <arg>--primary</arg>
            <arg>--secondary</arg>
            <arg>--all</arg>
          </group>
          <sbr>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
          <sbr>
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          <arg choice="opt"
          rep="repeat"><replaceable>name</replaceable></arg>
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        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
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          Stops one or more instances. If the instance cannot be
          cleanly stopped during a hardcoded interval (currently 2
          minutes), it will forcibly stop the instance (equivalent to
          switching off the power on a physical machine).
        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--instance</option>, <option>--node</option>,
          <option>--primary</option>, <option>--secondary</option> and
          <option>--all</option> options are similar as for the
          <command>startup</command> command and they influence the
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          actual instances being shutdown.
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        </para>

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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>


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        <para>
          Example:
          <screen>
# gnt-instance shutdown instance1.example.com
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# gnt-instance shutdown --all
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          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>REBOOT</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>reboot</command>
          <sbr>
          <arg>--type=<replaceable>REBOOT-TYPE</replaceable></arg>
          <sbr>
          <arg>--ignore-secondaries</arg>
          <sbr>
          <arg>--force-multiple</arg>
          <sbr>
          <group choice="opt">
            <arg>--instance</arg>
            <arg>--node</arg>
            <arg>--primary</arg>
            <arg>--secondary</arg>
            <arg>--all</arg>
          </group>
          <sbr>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
          <sbr>
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          <arg choice="opt"
          rep="repeat"><replaceable>name</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Reboots one or more instances. The type of reboot depends on
          the value of <option>--type</option>. A soft reboot does a
          hypervisor reboot, a hard reboot does a instance stop,
          recreates the hypervisor config for the instance and
          starts the instance. A full reboot does the equivalent
          of <command>gnt-instance shutdown &amp;&amp; gnt-instance
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          startup</command>. The default is hard reboot.
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        </para>

        <para>
          For the hard reboot the option
          <option>--ignore-secondaries</option> ignores errors for the
          secondary node while re-assembling the instance disks.
        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--instance</option>, <option>--node</option>,
          <option>--primary</option>, <option>--secondary</option> and
          <option>--all</option> options are similar as for the
          <command>startup</command> command and they influence the
          actual instances being rebooted.
        </para>
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        <para>
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          The <option>--force-multiple</option> will skip the
          interactive confirmation in the case the more than one
          instance will be affected.
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        </para>

        <para>
          Example:
          <screen>
# gnt-instance reboot instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance reboot --type=full instance1.example.com
          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>CONSOLE</title>
        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>console</command>
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          <arg choice="opt">--show-cmd</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
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          Connects to the console of the given instance. If the
          instance is not up, an error is returned. Use the
          <option>--show-cmd</option> option to display the command
          instead of executing it.
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        </para>

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        <para>
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          For HVM instances, this will attempt to connect to the
          serial console of the instance. To connect to the
          virtualized "physical" console of a HVM instance, use a VNC
          client with the connection info from the
          <command>info</command> command.
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        </para>

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        <para>
          Example:
          <screen>
# gnt-instance console instance1.example.com
          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

    </refsect2>

    <refsect2>
      <title>Disk management</title>

      <refsect3>
        <title>REPLACE-DISKS</title>

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        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>replace-disks</command>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req">-p</arg>
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          <arg>--disks <replaceable>idx</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>
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        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>replace-disks</command>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req">-s</arg>
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          <arg>--disks <replaceable>idx</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

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        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>replace-disks</command>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <group choice="req">
            <arg>--iallocator <replaceable>name</replaceable></arg>
            <arg>--new-secondary <replaceable>NODE</replaceable></arg>
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          </group>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

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        <para>
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          This command is a generalized form for replacing disks. It
          is currently only valid for the mirrored (DRBD) disk
          template.
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        </para>
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        <para>
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          The first form (when passing the <option>-p</option> option)
          will replace the disks on the primary, while the second form
          (when passing the <option>-s</option> option will replace
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          the disks on the secondary node. For these two cases (as the
          node doesn't change), it is possible to only run the replace
          for a subset of the disks, using the option
          <option>--disks</option> which takes a list of
          comma-delimited disk indices (zero-based),
          e.g. <userinput>0,2</userinput> to replace only the first
          and third disks.
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        </para>

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        <para>
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          The third form (when passing either the
          <option>--iallocator</option> or the
          <option>--new-secondary</option> option) is designed to
          change secondary node of the instance.  Specifying
          <option>--iallocator</option> makes the new secondary be
          selected automatically by the specified allocator plugin,
          otherwise the new secondary node will be the one chosen
          manually via the <option>--new-secondary</option> option.
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        </para>
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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>

        <para>
          Note that it is not possible to select an offline or drained
          node as a new secondary.
        </para>

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      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>ACTIVATE-DISKS</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>activate-disks</command>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>
        <para>
          Activates the block devices of the given instance. If
          successful, the command will show the location and name of
          the block devices:
          <screen>
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node1.example.com:disk/0:/dev/drbd0
node1.example.com:disk/1:/dev/drbd1
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          </screen>

          In this example, <emphasis>node1.example.com</emphasis> is
          the name of the node on which the devices have been
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          activated. The <emphasis>disk/0</emphasis> and
          <emphasis>disk/1</emphasis> are the Ganeti-names of the
          instance disks; how they are visible inside the instance is
          hypervisor-specific. <emphasis>/dev/drbd0</emphasis> and
          <emphasis>/dev/drbd1</emphasis> are the actual block devices
          as visible on the node.
        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
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        </para>

        <para>
          Note that it is safe to run this command while the instance
          is already running.
        </para>
      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>DEACTIVATE-DISKS</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>deactivate-disks</command>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>
        <para>
          De-activates the block devices of the given instance. Note
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          that if you run this command for an instance with a drbd
          disk template, while it is running, it will not be able to
          shutdown the block devices on the primary node, but it will
          shutdown the block devices on the secondary nodes, thus
          breaking the replication.
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        </para>

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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>

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      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>GROW-DISK</title>
        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>grow-disk</command>
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          <arg>--no-wait-for-sync</arg>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>disk</replaceable></arg>
          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>amount</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Grows an instance's disk. This is only possible for
          instances having a <literal>plain</literal> or
          <literal>drbd</literal> disk template.
        </para>

        <para>
          Note that this command only change the block device size; it
          will not grow the actual filesystems, partitions, etc. that
          live on that disk. Usually, you will need to:
          <orderedlist>
            <listitem>
              <simpara>use <command>gnt-instance grow-disk</command></simpara>
            </listitem>
            <listitem>
              <simpara>reboot the instance (later, at a convenient
              time)</simpara>
            </listitem>
            <listitem>
              <simpara>use a filesystem resizer, such as
              <citerefentry> <refentrytitle>ext2online</refentrytitle>
              <manvolnum>8</manvolnum> </citerefentry> or
              <citerefentry> <refentrytitle>xfs_growfs</refentrytitle>
              <manvolnum>8</manvolnum> </citerefentry> to resize the
              filesystem, or use <citerefentry>
              <refentrytitle>fdisk</refentrytitle>
              <manvolnum>8</manvolnum> </citerefentry> to change the
              partition table on the disk
              </simpara>
            </listitem>
          </orderedlist>
        </para>


        <para>
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          The <replaceable>disk</replaceable> argument is the index of
          the instance disk to grow. The
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          <replaceable>amount</replaceable> argument is given either
          as a number (and it represents the amount to increase the
          disk with in mebibytes) or can be given similar to the
          arguments in the create instance operation, with a suffix
          denoting the unit.
        </para>

        <para>
          Note that the disk grow operation might complete on one node
          but fail on the other; this will leave the instance with
          different-sized LVs on the two nodes, but this will not
          create problems (except for unused space).
        </para>

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        <para>
          If you do not want gnt-instance to wait for the new disk
          region to be synced, use the
          <option>--no-wait-for-sync</option> option.
        </para>

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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>

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        <para>Example (increase the first disk for instance1 by 16GiB):
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          <screen>
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# gnt-instance grow-disk instance1.example.com 0 16g
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          </screen>
        </para>

        <para>
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          Also note that disk shrinking is not supported; use
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          <command>gnt-backup export</command> and then
          <command>gnt-backup import</command> to reduce the disk size
          of an instance.
        </para>
      </refsect3>

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    </refsect2>

    <refsect2>
      <title>Recovery</title>

      <refsect3>
        <title>FAILOVER</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>failover</command>
          <arg>-f</arg>
          <arg>--ignore-consistency</arg>
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          <arg>--submit</arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
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        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
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          Failover will fail the instance over its secondary
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          node. This works only for instances having a drbd disk
          template.
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        </para>

        <para>
          Normally the failover will check the consistency of the
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          disks before failing over the instance. If you are trying to
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          migrate instances off a dead node, this will fail. Use the
          <option>--ignore-consistency</option> option for this
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          purpose. Note that this option can be dangerous as errors in
          shutting down the instance will be ignored, resulting in
          possibly having the instance running on two machines in
          parallel (on disconnected DRBD drives).
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        </para>

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        <para>
          The <option>--submit</option> option is used to send the job to
          the master daemon but not wait for its completion. The job
          ID will be shown so that it can be examined via
          <command>gnt-job info</command>.
        </para>

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        <para>
          Example:
          <screen>
# gnt-instance failover instance1.example.com
          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

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      <refsect3>
        <title>MIGRATE</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>migrate</command>
          <arg>-f</arg>
          <arg choice="req">--cleanup</arg>
          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>migrate</command>
          <arg>-f</arg>
          <arg>--non-live</arg>
          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instance</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Migrate will move the instance to its secondary node without
          shutdown. It only works for instances having the drbd8 disk
          template type.
        </para>

        <para>
          The migration command needs a perfectly healthy instance, as
          we rely on the dual-master capability of drbd8 and the disks
          of the instance are not allowed to be degraded.
        </para>

        <para>
          The <option>--non-live</option> option will switch (for the
          hypervisors that support it) between a "fully live"
          (i.e. the interruption is as minimal as possible) migration
          and one in which the instance is frozen, its state saved and
          transported to the remote node, and then resumed there. This
          all depends on the hypervisor support for two different
          methods. In any case, it is not an error to pass this
          parameter (it will just be ignored if the hypervisor doesn't
          support it).
        </para>

        <para>
          If the <option>--cleanup</option> option is passed, the
          operation changes from migration to attempting recovery from
          a failed previous migration. In this mode, ganeti checks if
          the instance runs on the correct node (and updates its
          configuration if not) and ensures the instances's disks are
          configured correctly. In this mode, the
          <option>--non-live</option> option is ignored.
        </para>

        <para>
          The option <option>-f</option> will skip the prompting for
          confirmation.
        </para>
        <para>
          Example (and expected output):
          <screen>
# gnt-instance migrate instance1
Migrate will happen to the instance instance1. Note that migration is
**experimental** in this version. This might impact the instance if
anything goes wrong. Continue?
y/[n]/?: y
* checking disk consistency between source and target
* ensuring the target is in secondary mode
* changing disks into dual-master mode
 - INFO: Waiting for instance instance1 to sync disks.
 - INFO: Instance instance1's disks are in sync.
* migrating instance to node2.example.com
* changing the instance's disks on source node to secondary
 - INFO: Waiting for instance instance1 to sync disks.
 - INFO: Instance instance1's disks are in sync.
* changing the instance's disks to single-master
#
          </screen>
        </para>
      </refsect3>

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    </refsect2>

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    <refsect2>
      <title>TAGS</title>

    <refsect3>
        <title>ADD-TAGS</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>add-tags</command>
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          <arg choice="opt">--from <replaceable>file</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instancename</replaceable></arg>
          <arg choice="req"
            rep="repeat"><replaceable>tag</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Add tags to the given instance. If any of the tags contains
          invalid characters, the entire operation will abort.
        </para>
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        <para>
          If the <option>--from</option> option is given, the list of
          tags will be extended with the contents of that file (each
          line becomes a tag). In this case, there is not need to pass
          tags on the command line (if you do, both sources will be
          used). A file name of - will be interpreted as stdin.
        </para>
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      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>LIST-TAGS</title>

        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>list-tags</command>
          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instancename</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>List the tags of the given instance.</para>
      </refsect3>

      <refsect3>
        <title>REMOVE-TAGS</title>
        <cmdsynopsis>
          <command>remove-tags</command>
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          <arg choice="opt">--from <replaceable>file</replaceable></arg>
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          <arg choice="req"><replaceable>instancename</replaceable></arg>
          <arg choice="req"
            rep="repeat"><replaceable>tag</replaceable></arg>
        </cmdsynopsis>

        <para>
          Remove tags from the given instance. If any of the tags are
          not existing on the node, the entire operation will abort.
        </para>
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        <para>
          If the <option>--from</option> option is given, the list of
          tags will be extended with the contents of that file (each
          line becomes a tag). In this case, there is not need to pass
          tags on the command line (if you do, both sources will be
          used). A file name of - will be interpreted as stdin.
        </para>