query.py 72.1 KB
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#
#

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# Copyright (C) 2010, 2011, 2012 Google Inc.
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#
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
# General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
# 02110-1301, USA.


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"""Module for query operations

How it works:

  - Add field definitions
    - See how L{NODE_FIELDS} is built
    - Each field gets:
      - Query field definition (L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition}, use
        L{_MakeField} for creating), containing:
          - Name, must be lowercase and match L{FIELD_NAME_RE}
          - Title for tables, must not contain whitespace and match
            L{TITLE_RE}
          - Value data type, e.g. L{constants.QFT_NUMBER}
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          - Human-readable description, must not end with punctuation or
            contain newlines
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      - Data request type, see e.g. C{NQ_*}
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      - OR-ed flags, see C{QFF_*}
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      - A retrieval function, see L{Query.__init__} for description
    - Pass list of fields through L{_PrepareFieldList} for preparation and
      checks
  - Instantiate L{Query} with prepared field list definition and selected fields
  - Call L{Query.RequestedData} to determine what data to collect/compute
  - Call L{Query.Query} or L{Query.OldStyleQuery} with collected data and use
    result
      - Data container must support iteration using C{__iter__}
      - Items are passed to retrieval functions and can have any format
  - Call L{Query.GetFields} to get list of definitions for selected fields

@attention: Retrieval functions must be idempotent. They can be called multiple
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  times, in any order and any number of times.
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"""
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import logging
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import operator
import re

from ganeti import constants
from ganeti import errors
from ganeti import utils
from ganeti import compat
from ganeti import objects
from ganeti import ht
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from ganeti import runtime
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from ganeti import qlang
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from ganeti import jstore
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from ganeti.constants import (QFT_UNKNOWN, QFT_TEXT, QFT_BOOL, QFT_NUMBER,
                              QFT_UNIT, QFT_TIMESTAMP, QFT_OTHER,
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                              RS_NORMAL, RS_UNKNOWN, RS_NODATA,
                              RS_UNAVAIL, RS_OFFLINE)
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# Constants for requesting data from the caller/data provider. Each property
# collected/computed separately by the data provider should have its own to
# only collect the requested data and not more.

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(NQ_CONFIG,
 NQ_INST,
 NQ_LIVE,
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 NQ_GROUP,
 NQ_OOB) = range(1, 6)
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(IQ_CONFIG,
 IQ_LIVE,
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 IQ_DISKUSAGE,
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 IQ_CONSOLE,
 IQ_NODES) = range(100, 105)
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(LQ_MODE,
 LQ_OWNER,
 LQ_PENDING) = range(10, 13)
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(GQ_CONFIG,
 GQ_NODE,
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 GQ_INST,
 GQ_DISKPARAMS) = range(200, 204)
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(CQ_CONFIG,
 CQ_QUEUE_DRAINED,
 CQ_WATCHER_PAUSE) = range(300, 303)

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# Query field flags
QFF_HOSTNAME = 0x01
QFF_IP_ADDRESS = 0x02
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QFF_JOB_ID = 0x04
QFF_SPLIT_TIMESTAMP = 0x08
# Next values: 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x100, 0x200
QFF_ALL = (QFF_HOSTNAME | QFF_IP_ADDRESS | QFF_JOB_ID | QFF_SPLIT_TIMESTAMP)
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FIELD_NAME_RE = re.compile(r"^[a-z0-9/._]+$")
TITLE_RE = re.compile(r"^[^\s]+$")
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DOC_RE = re.compile(r"^[A-Z].*[^.,?!]$")
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#: Verification function for each field type
_VERIFY_FN = {
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  QFT_UNKNOWN: ht.TNone,
  QFT_TEXT: ht.TString,
  QFT_BOOL: ht.TBool,
  QFT_NUMBER: ht.TInt,
  QFT_UNIT: ht.TInt,
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  QFT_TIMESTAMP: ht.TNumber,
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  QFT_OTHER: lambda _: True,
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  }

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# Unique objects for special field statuses
_FS_UNKNOWN = object()
_FS_NODATA = object()
_FS_UNAVAIL = object()
_FS_OFFLINE = object()

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#: List of all special status
_FS_ALL = frozenset([_FS_UNKNOWN, _FS_NODATA, _FS_UNAVAIL, _FS_OFFLINE])

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#: VType to QFT mapping
_VTToQFT = {
  # TODO: fix validation of empty strings
  constants.VTYPE_STRING: QFT_OTHER, # since VTYPE_STRINGs can be empty
  constants.VTYPE_MAYBE_STRING: QFT_OTHER,
  constants.VTYPE_BOOL: QFT_BOOL,
  constants.VTYPE_SIZE: QFT_UNIT,
  constants.VTYPE_INT: QFT_NUMBER,
  }

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_SERIAL_NO_DOC = "%s object serial number, incremented on each modification"

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def _GetUnknownField(ctx, item): # pylint: disable=W0613
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  """Gets the contents of an unknown field.

  """
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  return _FS_UNKNOWN
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def _GetQueryFields(fielddefs, selected):
  """Calculates the internal list of selected fields.

  Unknown fields are returned as L{constants.QFT_UNKNOWN}.

  @type fielddefs: dict
  @param fielddefs: Field definitions
  @type selected: list of strings
  @param selected: List of selected fields

  """
  result = []

  for name in selected:
    try:
      fdef = fielddefs[name]
    except KeyError:
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      fdef = (_MakeField(name, name, QFT_UNKNOWN, "Unknown field '%s'" % name),
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              None, 0, _GetUnknownField)
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    assert len(fdef) == 4
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    result.append(fdef)

  return result


def GetAllFields(fielddefs):
  """Extract L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition} from field definitions.

  @rtype: list of L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition}

  """
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  return [fdef for (fdef, _, _, _) in fielddefs]
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class _FilterHints:
  """Class for filter analytics.

  When filters are used, the user of the L{Query} class usually doesn't know
  exactly which items will be necessary for building the result. It therefore
  has to prepare and compute the input data for potentially returning
  everything.

  There are two ways to optimize this. The first, and simpler, is to assign
  each field a group of data, so that the caller can determine which
  computations are necessary depending on the data groups requested. The list
  of referenced groups must also be computed for fields referenced in the
  filter.

  The second is restricting the items based on a primary key. The primary key
  is usually a unique name (e.g. a node name). This class extracts all
  referenced names from a filter. If it encounters any filter condition which
  disallows such a list to be determined (e.g. a non-equality filter), all
  names will be requested.

  The end-effect is that any operation other than L{qlang.OP_OR} and
  L{qlang.OP_EQUAL} will make the query more expensive.

  """
  def __init__(self, namefield):
    """Initializes this class.

    @type namefield: string
    @param namefield: Field caller is interested in

    """
    self._namefield = namefield

    #: Whether all names need to be requested (e.g. if a non-equality operator
    #: has been used)
    self._allnames = False

    #: Which names to request
    self._names = None

    #: Data kinds referenced by the filter (used by L{Query.RequestedData})
    self._datakinds = set()

  def RequestedNames(self):
    """Returns all requested values.

    Returns C{None} if list of values can't be determined (e.g. encountered
    non-equality operators).

    @rtype: list

    """
    if self._allnames or self._names is None:
      return None

    return utils.UniqueSequence(self._names)

  def ReferencedData(self):
    """Returns all kinds of data referenced by the filter.

    """
    return frozenset(self._datakinds)

  def _NeedAllNames(self):
    """Changes internal state to request all names.

    """
    self._allnames = True
    self._names = None

  def NoteLogicOp(self, op):
    """Called when handling a logic operation.

    @type op: string
    @param op: Operator

    """
    if op != qlang.OP_OR:
      self._NeedAllNames()

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  def NoteUnaryOp(self, op): # pylint: disable=W0613
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    """Called when handling an unary operation.

    @type op: string
    @param op: Operator

    """
    self._NeedAllNames()

  def NoteBinaryOp(self, op, datakind, name, value):
    """Called when handling a binary operation.

    @type op: string
    @param op: Operator
    @type name: string
    @param name: Left-hand side of operator (field name)
    @param value: Right-hand side of operator

    """
    if datakind is not None:
      self._datakinds.add(datakind)

    if self._allnames:
      return

    # If any operator other than equality was used, all names need to be
    # retrieved
    if op == qlang.OP_EQUAL and name == self._namefield:
      if self._names is None:
        self._names = []
      self._names.append(value)
    else:
      self._NeedAllNames()


def _WrapLogicOp(op_fn, sentences, ctx, item):
  """Wrapper for logic operator functions.

  """
  return op_fn(fn(ctx, item) for fn in sentences)


def _WrapUnaryOp(op_fn, inner, ctx, item):
  """Wrapper for unary operator functions.

  """
  return op_fn(inner(ctx, item))


def _WrapBinaryOp(op_fn, retrieval_fn, value, ctx, item):
  """Wrapper for binary operator functions.

  """
  return op_fn(retrieval_fn(ctx, item), value)


def _WrapNot(fn, lhs, rhs):
  """Negates the result of a wrapped function.

  """
  return not fn(lhs, rhs)


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def _PrepareRegex(pattern):
  """Compiles a regular expression.

  """
  try:
    return re.compile(pattern)
  except re.error, err:
    raise errors.ParameterError("Invalid regex pattern (%s)" % err)


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def _PrepareSplitTimestamp(value):
  """Prepares a value for comparison by L{_MakeSplitTimestampComparison}.

  """
  if ht.TNumber(value):
    return value
  else:
    return utils.MergeTime(value)


def _MakeSplitTimestampComparison(fn):
  """Compares split timestamp values after converting to float.

  """
  return lambda lhs, rhs: fn(utils.MergeTime(lhs), rhs)


def _MakeComparisonChecks(fn):
  """Prepares flag-specific comparisons using a comparison function.

  """
  return [
    (QFF_SPLIT_TIMESTAMP, _MakeSplitTimestampComparison(fn),
     _PrepareSplitTimestamp),
    (QFF_JOB_ID, lambda lhs, rhs: fn(jstore.ParseJobId(lhs), rhs),
     jstore.ParseJobId),
    (None, fn, None),
    ]


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class _FilterCompilerHelper:
  """Converts a query filter to a callable usable for filtering.

  """
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  # String statement has no effect, pylint: disable=W0105
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  #: How deep filters can be nested
  _LEVELS_MAX = 10

  # Unique identifiers for operator groups
  (_OPTYPE_LOGIC,
   _OPTYPE_UNARY,
   _OPTYPE_BINARY) = range(1, 4)

  """Functions for equality checks depending on field flags.

  List of tuples containing flags and a callable receiving the left- and
  right-hand side of the operator. The flags are an OR-ed value of C{QFF_*}
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  (e.g. L{QFF_HOSTNAME} or L{QFF_SPLIT_TIMESTAMP}).
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  Order matters. The first item with flags will be used. Flags are checked
  using binary AND.

  """
  _EQUALITY_CHECKS = [
    (QFF_HOSTNAME,
     lambda lhs, rhs: utils.MatchNameComponent(rhs, [lhs],
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                                               case_sensitive=False),
     None),
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    (QFF_SPLIT_TIMESTAMP, _MakeSplitTimestampComparison(operator.eq),
     _PrepareSplitTimestamp),
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    (None, operator.eq, None),
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    ]

  """Known operators

  Operator as key (C{qlang.OP_*}), value a tuple of operator group
  (C{_OPTYPE_*}) and a group-specific value:

    - C{_OPTYPE_LOGIC}: Callable taking any number of arguments; used by
      L{_HandleLogicOp}
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    - C{_OPTYPE_UNARY}: Always C{None}; details handled by L{_HandleUnaryOp}
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    - C{_OPTYPE_BINARY}: Callable taking exactly two parameters, the left- and
      right-hand side of the operator, used by L{_HandleBinaryOp}

  """
  _OPS = {
    # Logic operators
    qlang.OP_OR: (_OPTYPE_LOGIC, compat.any),
    qlang.OP_AND: (_OPTYPE_LOGIC, compat.all),

    # Unary operators
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    qlang.OP_NOT: (_OPTYPE_UNARY, None),
    qlang.OP_TRUE: (_OPTYPE_UNARY, None),
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    # Binary operators
    qlang.OP_EQUAL: (_OPTYPE_BINARY, _EQUALITY_CHECKS),
    qlang.OP_NOT_EQUAL:
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      (_OPTYPE_BINARY, [(flags, compat.partial(_WrapNot, fn), valprepfn)
                        for (flags, fn, valprepfn) in _EQUALITY_CHECKS]),
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    qlang.OP_LT: (_OPTYPE_BINARY, _MakeComparisonChecks(operator.lt)),
    qlang.OP_LE: (_OPTYPE_BINARY, _MakeComparisonChecks(operator.le)),
    qlang.OP_GT: (_OPTYPE_BINARY, _MakeComparisonChecks(operator.gt)),
    qlang.OP_GE: (_OPTYPE_BINARY, _MakeComparisonChecks(operator.ge)),
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    qlang.OP_REGEXP: (_OPTYPE_BINARY, [
      (None, lambda lhs, rhs: rhs.search(lhs), _PrepareRegex),
      ]),
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    qlang.OP_CONTAINS: (_OPTYPE_BINARY, [
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      (None, operator.contains, None),
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      ]),
    }

  def __init__(self, fields):
    """Initializes this class.

    @param fields: Field definitions (return value of L{_PrepareFieldList})

    """
    self._fields = fields
    self._hints = None
    self._op_handler = None

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  def __call__(self, hints, qfilter):
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    """Converts a query filter into a callable function.

    @type hints: L{_FilterHints} or None
    @param hints: Callbacks doing analysis on filter
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    @type qfilter: list
    @param qfilter: Filter structure
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    @rtype: callable
    @return: Function receiving context and item as parameters, returning
             boolean as to whether item matches filter

    """
    self._op_handler = {
      self._OPTYPE_LOGIC:
        (self._HandleLogicOp, getattr(hints, "NoteLogicOp", None)),
      self._OPTYPE_UNARY:
        (self._HandleUnaryOp, getattr(hints, "NoteUnaryOp", None)),
      self._OPTYPE_BINARY:
        (self._HandleBinaryOp, getattr(hints, "NoteBinaryOp", None)),
      }

    try:
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      filter_fn = self._Compile(qfilter, 0)
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    finally:
      self._op_handler = None

    return filter_fn

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  def _Compile(self, qfilter, level):
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    """Inner function for converting filters.

    Calls the correct handler functions for the top-level operator. This
    function is called recursively (e.g. for logic operators).

    """
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    if not (isinstance(qfilter, (list, tuple)) and qfilter):
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      raise errors.ParameterError("Invalid filter on level %s" % level)

    # Limit recursion
    if level >= self._LEVELS_MAX:
      raise errors.ParameterError("Only up to %s levels are allowed (filter"
                                  " nested too deep)" % self._LEVELS_MAX)

    # Create copy to be modified
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    operands = qfilter[:]
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    op = operands.pop(0)

    try:
      (kind, op_data) = self._OPS[op]
    except KeyError:
      raise errors.ParameterError("Unknown operator '%s'" % op)

    (handler, hints_cb) = self._op_handler[kind]

    return handler(hints_cb, level, op, op_data, operands)

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  def _LookupField(self, name):
    """Returns a field definition by name.

    """
    try:
      return self._fields[name]
    except KeyError:
      raise errors.ParameterError("Unknown field '%s'" % name)

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  def _HandleLogicOp(self, hints_fn, level, op, op_fn, operands):
    """Handles logic operators.

    @type hints_fn: callable
    @param hints_fn: Callback doing some analysis on the filter
    @type level: integer
    @param level: Current depth
    @type op: string
    @param op: Operator
    @type op_fn: callable
    @param op_fn: Function implementing operator
    @type operands: list
    @param operands: List of operands

    """
    if hints_fn:
      hints_fn(op)

    return compat.partial(_WrapLogicOp, op_fn,
                          [self._Compile(op, level + 1) for op in operands])

  def _HandleUnaryOp(self, hints_fn, level, op, op_fn, operands):
    """Handles unary operators.

    @type hints_fn: callable
    @param hints_fn: Callback doing some analysis on the filter
    @type level: integer
    @param level: Current depth
    @type op: string
    @param op: Operator
    @type op_fn: callable
    @param op_fn: Function implementing operator
    @type operands: list
    @param operands: List of operands

    """
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    assert op_fn is None

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    if hints_fn:
      hints_fn(op)

    if len(operands) != 1:
      raise errors.ParameterError("Unary operator '%s' expects exactly one"
                                  " operand" % op)

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    if op == qlang.OP_TRUE:
      (_, _, _, retrieval_fn) = self._LookupField(operands[0])

      op_fn = operator.truth
      arg = retrieval_fn
    elif op == qlang.OP_NOT:
      op_fn = operator.not_
      arg = self._Compile(operands[0], level + 1)
    else:
      raise errors.ProgrammerError("Can't handle operator '%s'" % op)

    return compat.partial(_WrapUnaryOp, op_fn, arg)
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  def _HandleBinaryOp(self, hints_fn, level, op, op_data, operands):
    """Handles binary operators.

    @type hints_fn: callable
    @param hints_fn: Callback doing some analysis on the filter
    @type level: integer
    @param level: Current depth
    @type op: string
    @param op: Operator
    @param op_data: Functions implementing operators
    @type operands: list
    @param operands: List of operands

    """
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    # Unused arguments, pylint: disable=W0613
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    try:
      (name, value) = operands
    except (ValueError, TypeError):
      raise errors.ParameterError("Invalid binary operator, expected exactly"
                                  " two operands")

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    (fdef, datakind, field_flags, retrieval_fn) = self._LookupField(name)
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    assert fdef.kind != QFT_UNKNOWN

    # TODO: Type conversions?

    verify_fn = _VERIFY_FN[fdef.kind]
    if not verify_fn(value):
      raise errors.ParameterError("Unable to compare field '%s' (type '%s')"
                                  " with '%s', expected %s" %
                                  (name, fdef.kind, value.__class__.__name__,
                                   verify_fn))

    if hints_fn:
      hints_fn(op, datakind, name, value)

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    for (fn_flags, fn, valprepfn) in op_data:
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      if fn_flags is None or fn_flags & field_flags:
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        # Prepare value if necessary (e.g. compile regular expression)
        if valprepfn:
          value = valprepfn(value)

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        return compat.partial(_WrapBinaryOp, fn, retrieval_fn, value)

    raise errors.ProgrammerError("Unable to find operator implementation"
                                 " (op '%s', flags %s)" % (op, field_flags))


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def _CompileFilter(fields, hints, qfilter):
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  """Converts a query filter into a callable function.

  See L{_FilterCompilerHelper} for details.

  @rtype: callable

  """
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  return _FilterCompilerHelper(fields)(hints, qfilter)
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class Query:
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  def __init__(self, fieldlist, selected, qfilter=None, namefield=None):
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    """Initializes this class.

    The field definition is a dictionary with the field's name as a key and a
    tuple containing, in order, the field definition object
    (L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition}, the data kind to help calling code
    collect data and a retrieval function. The retrieval function is called
    with two parameters, in order, the data container and the item in container
    (see L{Query.Query}).

    Users of this class can call L{RequestedData} before preparing the data
    container to determine what data is needed.

    @type fieldlist: dictionary
    @param fieldlist: Field definitions
    @type selected: list of strings
    @param selected: List of selected fields

    """
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    assert namefield is None or namefield in fieldlist

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    self._fields = _GetQueryFields(fieldlist, selected)

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    self._filter_fn = None
    self._requested_names = None
    self._filter_datakinds = frozenset()

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    if qfilter is not None:
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      # Collect requested names if wanted
      if namefield:
        hints = _FilterHints(namefield)
      else:
        hints = None

      # Build filter function
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      self._filter_fn = _CompileFilter(fieldlist, hints, qfilter)
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      if hints:
        self._requested_names = hints.RequestedNames()
        self._filter_datakinds = hints.ReferencedData()

    if namefield is None:
      self._name_fn = None
    else:
      (_, _, _, self._name_fn) = fieldlist[namefield]

  def RequestedNames(self):
    """Returns all names referenced in the filter.

    If there is no filter or operators are preventing determining the exact
    names, C{None} is returned.

    """
    return self._requested_names

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  def RequestedData(self):
    """Gets requested kinds of data.

    @rtype: frozenset

    """
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    return (self._filter_datakinds |
            frozenset(datakind for (_, datakind, _, _) in self._fields
                      if datakind is not None))
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  def GetFields(self):
    """Returns the list of fields for this query.

    Includes unknown fields.

    @rtype: List of L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition}

    """
    return GetAllFields(self._fields)

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  def Query(self, ctx, sort_by_name=True):
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    """Execute a query.

    @param ctx: Data container passed to field retrieval functions, must
      support iteration using C{__iter__}
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    @type sort_by_name: boolean
    @param sort_by_name: Whether to sort by name or keep the input data's
      ordering
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    """
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    sort = (self._name_fn and sort_by_name)

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    result = []

    for idx, item in enumerate(ctx):
      if not (self._filter_fn is None or self._filter_fn(ctx, item)):
        continue
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      row = [_ProcessResult(fn(ctx, item)) for (_, _, _, fn) in self._fields]

      # Verify result
      if __debug__:
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        _VerifyResultRow(self._fields, row)
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      if sort:
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        (status, name) = _ProcessResult(self._name_fn(ctx, item))
        assert status == constants.RS_NORMAL
        # TODO: Are there cases where we wouldn't want to use NiceSort?
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        # Answer: if the name field is non-string...
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        result.append((utils.NiceSortKey(name), idx, row))
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      else:
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        result.append(row)
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    if not sort:
      return result
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    # TODO: Would "heapq" be more efficient than sorting?

    # Sorting in-place instead of using "sorted()"
    result.sort()

    assert not result or (len(result[0]) == 3 and len(result[-1]) == 3)

    return map(operator.itemgetter(2), result)
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  def OldStyleQuery(self, ctx, sort_by_name=True):
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    """Query with "old" query result format.

    See L{Query.Query} for arguments.

    """
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    unknown = set(fdef.name for (fdef, _, _, _) in self._fields
                  if fdef.kind == QFT_UNKNOWN)
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    if unknown:
      raise errors.OpPrereqError("Unknown output fields selected: %s" %
                                 (utils.CommaJoin(unknown), ),
                                 errors.ECODE_INVAL)

    return [[value for (_, value) in row]
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            for row in self.Query(ctx, sort_by_name=sort_by_name)]
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def _ProcessResult(value):
  """Converts result values into externally-visible ones.

  """
  if value is _FS_UNKNOWN:
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    return (RS_UNKNOWN, None)
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  elif value is _FS_NODATA:
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    return (RS_NODATA, None)
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  elif value is _FS_UNAVAIL:
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    return (RS_UNAVAIL, None)
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  elif value is _FS_OFFLINE:
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    return (RS_OFFLINE, None)
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  else:
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    return (RS_NORMAL, value)
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def _VerifyResultRow(fields, row):
  """Verifies the contents of a query result row.

  @type fields: list
  @param fields: Field definitions for result
  @type row: list of tuples
  @param row: Row data

  """
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  assert len(row) == len(fields)
  errs = []
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  for ((status, value), (fdef, _, _, _)) in zip(row, fields):
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    if status == RS_NORMAL:
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      if not _VERIFY_FN[fdef.kind](value):
        errs.append("normal field %s fails validation (value is %s)" %
                    (fdef.name, value))
    elif value is not None:
      errs.append("abnormal field %s has a non-None value" % fdef.name)
  assert not errs, ("Failed validation: %s in row %s" %
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                    (utils.CommaJoin(errs), row))
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def _FieldDictKey((fdef, _, flags, fn)):
  """Generates key for field dictionary.

  """
  assert fdef.name and fdef.title, "Name and title are required"
  assert FIELD_NAME_RE.match(fdef.name)
  assert TITLE_RE.match(fdef.title)
  assert (DOC_RE.match(fdef.doc) and len(fdef.doc.splitlines()) == 1 and
          fdef.doc.strip() == fdef.doc), \
         "Invalid description for field '%s'" % fdef.name
  assert callable(fn)
  assert (flags & ~QFF_ALL) == 0, "Unknown flags for field '%s'" % fdef.name

  return fdef.name


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def _PrepareFieldList(fields, aliases):
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  """Prepares field list for use by L{Query}.

  Converts the list to a dictionary and does some verification.

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  @type fields: list of tuples; (L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition}, data
      kind, retrieval function)
  @param fields: List of fields, see L{Query.__init__} for a better
      description
  @type aliases: list of tuples; (alias, target)
  @param aliases: list of tuples containing aliases; for each
      alias/target pair, a duplicate will be created in the field list
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  @rtype: dict
  @return: Field dictionary for L{Query}

  """
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  if __debug__:
    duplicates = utils.FindDuplicates(fdef.title.lower()
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                                      for (fdef, _, _, _) in fields)
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    assert not duplicates, "Duplicate title(s) found: %r" % duplicates
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  result = utils.SequenceToDict(fields, key=_FieldDictKey)
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  for alias, target in aliases:
    assert alias not in result, "Alias %s overrides an existing field" % alias
    assert target in result, "Missing target %s for alias %s" % (target, alias)
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    (fdef, k, flags, fn) = result[target]
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    fdef = fdef.Copy()
    fdef.name = alias
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    result[alias] = (fdef, k, flags, fn)
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  assert len(result) == len(fields) + len(aliases)
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  assert compat.all(name == fdef.name
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                    for (name, (fdef, _, _, _)) in result.items())
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  return result


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def GetQueryResponse(query, ctx, sort_by_name=True):
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  """Prepares the response for a query.

  @type query: L{Query}
  @param ctx: Data container, see L{Query.Query}
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  @type sort_by_name: boolean
  @param sort_by_name: Whether to sort by name or keep the input data's
    ordering
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  """
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  return objects.QueryResponse(data=query.Query(ctx, sort_by_name=sort_by_name),
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                               fields=query.GetFields()).ToDict()


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def QueryFields(fielddefs, selected):
  """Returns list of available fields.

  @type fielddefs: dict
  @param fielddefs: Field definitions
  @type selected: list of strings
  @param selected: List of selected fields
  @return: List of L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition}

  """
  if selected is None:
    # Client requests all fields, sort by name
    fdefs = utils.NiceSort(GetAllFields(fielddefs.values()),
                           key=operator.attrgetter("name"))
  else:
    # Keep order as requested by client
    fdefs = Query(fielddefs, selected).GetFields()

  return objects.QueryFieldsResponse(fields=fdefs).ToDict()


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def _MakeField(name, title, kind, doc):
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  """Wrapper for creating L{objects.QueryFieldDefinition} instances.

  @param name: Field name as a regular expression
  @param title: Human-readable title
  @param kind: Field type
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  @param doc: Human-readable description
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  """
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  return objects.QueryFieldDefinition(name=name, title=title, kind=kind,
                                      doc=doc)
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def _StaticValueInner(value, ctx, _): # pylint: disable=W0613
  """Returns a static value.

  """
  return value


def _StaticValue(value):
  """Prepares a function to return a static value.

  """
  return compat.partial(_StaticValueInner, value)


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def _GetNodeRole(node, master_name):
  """Determine node role.

  @type node: L{objects.Node}
  @param node: Node object
  @type master_name: string
  @param master_name: Master node name

  """
  if node.name == master_name:
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    return constants.NR_MASTER
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  elif node.master_candidate:
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    return constants.NR_MCANDIDATE
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  elif node.drained:
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    return constants.NR_DRAINED
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  elif node.offline:
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    return constants.NR_OFFLINE
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  else:
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    return constants.NR_REGULAR
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def _GetItemAttr(attr):
  """Returns a field function to return an attribute of the item.

  @param attr: Attribute name

  """
  getter = operator.attrgetter(attr)
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  return lambda _, item: getter(item)
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def _GetNDParam(name):
  """Return a field function to return an ND parameter out of the context.

  """
  def _helper(ctx, _):
    if ctx.ndparams is None:
      return _FS_UNAVAIL
    else:
      return ctx.ndparams.get(name, None)
  return _helper


def _BuildNDFields(is_group):
  """Builds all the ndparam fields.

  @param is_group: whether this is called at group or node level

  """
  if is_group:
    field_kind = GQ_CONFIG
  else:
    field_kind = NQ_GROUP
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  return [(_MakeField("ndp/%s" % name,
                      constants.NDS_PARAMETER_TITLES.get(name,
                                                         "ndp/%s" % name),
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                      _VTToQFT[kind], "The \"%s\" node parameter" % name),
           field_kind, 0, _GetNDParam(name))
          for name, kind in constants.NDS_PARAMETER_TYPES.items()]


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def _ConvWrapInner(convert, fn, ctx, item):
  """Wrapper for converting values.

  @param convert: Conversion function receiving value as single parameter
  @param fn: Retrieval function

  """
  value = fn(ctx, item)

  # Is the value an abnormal status?
  if compat.any(value is fs for fs in _FS_ALL):
    # Return right away
    return value

  # TODO: Should conversion function also receive context, item or both?
  return convert(value)


def _ConvWrap(convert, fn):
  """Convenience wrapper for L{_ConvWrapInner}.

  @param convert: Conversion function receiving value as single parameter
  @param fn: Retrieval function

  """
  return compat.partial(_ConvWrapInner, convert, fn)


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def _GetItemTimestamp(getter):
  """Returns function for getting timestamp of item.

  @type getter: callable
  @param getter: Function to retrieve timestamp attribute

  """
  def fn(_, item):
    """Returns a timestamp of item.

    """
    timestamp = getter(item)
    if timestamp is None:
      # Old configs might not have all timestamps
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      return _FS_UNAVAIL
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    else:
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      return timestamp
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  return fn


def _GetItemTimestampFields(datatype):
  """Returns common timestamp fields.

  @param datatype: Field data type for use by L{Query.RequestedData}

  """
  return [
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    (_MakeField("ctime", "CTime", QFT_TIMESTAMP, "Creation timestamp"),
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     datatype, 0, _GetItemTimestamp(operator.attrgetter("ctime"))),
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    (_MakeField("mtime", "MTime", QFT_TIMESTAMP, "Modification timestamp"),
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     datatype, 0, _GetItemTimestamp(operator.attrgetter("mtime"))),
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    ]


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class NodeQueryData:
  """Data container for node data queries.

  """
  def __init__(self, nodes, live_data, master_name, node_to_primary,
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               node_to_secondary, groups, oob_support, cluster):
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    """Initializes this class.

    """
    self.nodes = nodes
    self.live_data = live_data
    self.master_name = master_name
    self.node_to_primary = node_to_primary
    self.node_to_secondary = node_to_secondary
    self.groups = groups
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    self.oob_support = oob_support
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    self.cluster = cluster
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    # Used for individual rows
    self.curlive_data = None
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    self.ndparams = None
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  def __iter__(self):
    """Iterate over all nodes.

    This function has side-effects and only one instance of the resulting
    generator should be used at a time.

    """
    for node in self.nodes:
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      group = self.groups.get(node.group, None)
      if group is None:
        self.ndparams = None
      else:
        self.ndparams = self.cluster.FillND(node, group)
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      if self.live_data:
        self.curlive_data = self.live_data.get(node.name, None)
      else:
        self.curlive_data = None
      yield node


#: Fields that are direct attributes of an L{objects.Node} object
_NODE_SIMPLE_FIELDS = {
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  "drained": ("Drained", QFT_BOOL, 0, "Whether node is drained"),
  "master_candidate": ("MasterC", QFT_BOOL, 0,
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                       "Whether node is a master candidate"),
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  "master_capable": ("MasterCapable", QFT_BOOL, 0,
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                     "Whether node can become a master candidate"),
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  "name": ("Node", QFT_TEXT, QFF_HOSTNAME, "Node name"),
  "offline": ("Offline", QFT_BOOL, 0, "Whether node is marked offline"),
  "serial_no": ("SerialNo", QFT_NUMBER, 0, _SERIAL_NO_DOC % "Node"),
  "uuid": ("UUID", QFT_TEXT, 0, "Node UUID"),
  "vm_capable": ("VMCapable", QFT_BOOL, 0, "Whether node can host instances"),
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  }


#: Fields requiring talking to the node
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# Note that none of these are available for non-vm_capable nodes
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_NODE_LIVE_FIELDS = {
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  "bootid": ("BootID", QFT_TEXT, "bootid",
             "Random UUID renewed for each system reboot, can be used"
             " for detecting reboots by tracking changes"),
  "cnodes": ("CNodes", QFT_NUMBER, "cpu_nodes",
             "Number of NUMA domains on node (if exported by hypervisor)"),
  "csockets": ("CSockets", QFT_NUMBER, "cpu_sockets",
               "Number of physical CPU sockets (if exported by hypervisor)"),
  "ctotal": ("CTotal", QFT_NUMBER, "cpu_total", "Number of logical processors"),
  "dfree": ("DFree", QFT_UNIT, "vg_free",
            "Available disk space in volume group"),
  "dtotal": ("DTotal", QFT_UNIT, "vg_size",
             "Total disk space in volume group used for instance disk"
             " allocation"),
  "mfree": ("MFree", QFT_UNIT, "memory_free",
            "Memory available for instance allocations"),
  "mnode": ("MNode", QFT_UNIT, "memory_dom0",
            "Amount of memory used by node (dom0 for Xen)"),
  "mtotal": ("MTotal", QFT_UNIT, "memory_total",
             "Total amount of memory of physical machine"),
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  }


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def _GetGroup(cb):
  """Build function for calling another function with an node group.

  @param cb: The callback to be called with the nodegroup

  """
  def fn(ctx, node):
    """Get group data for a node.

    @type ctx: L{NodeQueryData}
    @type inst: L{objects.Node}
    @param inst: Node object

    """
    ng = ctx.groups.get(node.group, None)
    if ng is None:
      # Nodes always have a group, or the configuration is corrupt
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      return _FS_UNAVAIL
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    return cb(ctx, node, ng)

  return fn


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def _GetNodeGroup(ctx, node, ng): # pylint: disable=W0613
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  """Returns the name of a node's group.

  @type ctx: L{NodeQueryData}
  @type node: L{objects.Node}
  @param node: Node object
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  @type ng: L{objects.NodeGroup}
  @param ng: The node group this node belongs to
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  """
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  return ng.name
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def _GetNodePower(ctx, node):
  """Returns the node powered state

  @type ctx: L{NodeQueryData}
  @type node: L{objects.Node}
  @param node: Node object

  """
  if ctx.oob_support[node.name]:
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    return node.powered
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  return _FS_UNAVAIL
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def _GetNdParams(ctx, node, ng):
  """Returns the ndparams for this node.

  @type ctx: L{NodeQueryData}
  @type node: L{objects.Node}
  @param node: Node object
  @type ng: L{objects.NodeGroup}
  @param ng: The node group this node belongs to

  """
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  return ctx.cluster.SimpleFillND(ng.FillND(node))
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def _GetLiveNodeField(field, kind, ctx, node):
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  """Gets the value of a "live" field from L{NodeQueryData}.

  @param field: Live field name
  @param kind: Data kind, one of L{constants.QFT_ALL}
  @type ctx: L{NodeQueryData}
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  @type node: L{objects.Node}
  @param node: Node object
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  """
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  if node.offline:
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    return _FS_OFFLINE
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  if not node.vm_capable:
    return _FS_UNAVAIL

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  if not ctx.curlive_data:
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    return _FS_NODATA
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  try:
    value = ctx.curlive_data[field]
  except KeyError:
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    return _FS_UNAVAIL
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  if kind == QFT_TEXT:
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    return value
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  assert kind in (QFT_NUMBER, QFT_UNIT)
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  # Try to convert into number
  try:
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    return int(value)
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  except (ValueError, TypeError):
    logging.exception("Failed to convert node field '%s' (value %r) to int",
                      value, field)
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    return _FS_UNAVAIL
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def _GetNodeHvState(_, node):
  """Converts node's hypervisor state for query result.

  """
  hv_state = node.hv_state

  if hv_state is None:
    return _FS_UNAVAIL

  return dict((name, value.ToDict()) for (name, value) in hv_state.items())


def _GetNodeDiskState(_, node):
  """Converts node's disk state for query result.

  """
  disk_state = node.disk_state

  if disk_state is None:
    return _FS_UNAVAIL

  return dict((disk_kind, dict((name, value.ToDict())
                               for (name, value) in kind_state.items()))
              for (disk_kind, kind_state) in disk_state.items())


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def _BuildNodeFields():
  """Builds list of fields for node queries.

  """
  fields = [
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    (_MakeField("pip", "PrimaryIP", QFT_TEXT, "Primary IP address"),
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     NQ_CONFIG, 0, _GetItemAttr("primary_ip")),
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    (_MakeField("sip", "SecondaryIP", QFT_TEXT, "Secondary IP address"),
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     NQ_CONFIG, 0, _GetItemAttr("secondary_ip")),
    (_MakeField("tags", "Tags", QFT_OTHER, "Tags"), NQ_CONFIG, 0,
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     lambda ctx, node: list(node.GetTags())),
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    (_MakeField("master", "IsMaster", QFT_BOOL, "Whether node is master"),
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     NQ_CONFIG, 0, lambda ctx, node: node.name == ctx.master_name),
    (_MakeField("group", "Group", QFT_TEXT, "Node group"), NQ_GROUP, 0,
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     _GetGroup(_GetNodeGroup)),
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    (_MakeField("group.uuid", "GroupUUID", QFT_TEXT, "UUID of node group"),
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     NQ_CONFIG, 0, _GetItemAttr("group")),
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    (_MakeField("powered", "Powered", QFT_BOOL,
                "Whether node is thought to be powered on"),
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     NQ_OOB, 0, _GetNodePower),
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    (_MakeField("ndparams", "NodeParameters", QFT_OTHER,
                "Merged node parameters"),
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     NQ_GROUP, 0, _GetGroup(_GetNdParams)),
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    (_MakeField("custom_ndparams", "CustomNodeParameters", QFT_OTHER,
                "Custom node parameters"),
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      NQ_GROUP, 0, _GetItemAttr("ndparams")),
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    (_MakeField("hv_state", "HypervisorState", QFT_OTHER, "Hypervisor state"),
     NQ_CONFIG, 0, _GetNodeHvState),
    (_MakeField("disk_state", "DiskState", QFT_OTHER, "Disk state"),
     NQ_CONFIG, 0, _GetNodeDiskState),
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    ]

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  fields.extend(_BuildNDFields(False))

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  # Node role
  role_values = (constants.NR_MASTER, constants.NR_MCANDIDATE,
                 constants.NR_REGULAR, constants.NR_DRAINED,
                 constants.NR_OFFLINE)
  role_doc = ("Node role; \"%s\" for master, \"%s\" for master candidate,"
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              " \"%s\" for regular, \"%s\" for drained, \"%s\" for offline" %
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              role_values)
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  fields.append((_MakeField("role", "Role", QFT_TEXT, role_doc), NQ_CONFIG, 0,
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                 lambda ctx, node: _GetNodeRole(node, ctx.master_name)))
  assert set(role_values) == constants.NR_ALL

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  def _GetLength(getter):
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    return lambda ctx, node: len(getter(ctx)[node.name])
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  def _GetList(getter):
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    return lambda ctx, node: list(getter(ctx)[node.name])
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  # Add fields operating on instance lists
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  for prefix, titleprefix, docword, getter in \
      [("p", "Pri", "primary", operator.attrgetter("node_to_primary")),
       ("s", "Sec", "secondary", operator.attrgetter("node_to_secondary"))]:
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    # TODO: Allow filterting by hostname in list
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    fields.extend([
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      (_MakeField("%sinst_cnt" % prefix, "%sinst" % prefix.upper(), QFT_NUMBER,
                  "Number of instances with this node as %s" % docword),
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       NQ_INST, 0, _GetLength(getter)),
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      (_MakeField("%sinst_list" % prefix, "%sInstances" % titleprefix,
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                  QFT_OTHER,
                  "List of instances with this node as %s" % docword),
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       NQ_INST, 0, _GetList(getter)),
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      ])

  # Add simple fields
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  fields.extend([
    (_MakeField(name, title, kind, doc), NQ_CONFIG, flags, _GetItemAttr(name))
    for (name, (title, kind, flags, doc)) in _NODE_SIMPLE_FIELDS.items()
    ])
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  # Add fields requiring live data
  fields.extend([
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    (_MakeField(name, title, kind, doc), NQ_LIVE, 0,
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     compat.partial(_GetLiveNodeField, nfield, kind))
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    for (name, (title, kind, nfield, doc)) in _NODE_LIVE_FIELDS.items()
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    ])

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  # Add timestamps
  fields.extend(_GetItemTimestampFields(NQ_CONFIG))

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  return _PrepareFieldList(fields, [])
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class InstanceQueryData:
  """Data container for instance data queries.

  """
  def __init__(self, instances, cluster, disk_usage, offline_nodes, bad_nodes,
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               live_data, wrongnode_inst, console, nodes, groups):
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    """Initializes this class.

    @param instances: List of instance objects
    @param cluster: Cluster object
    @type disk_usage: dict; instance name as key
    @param disk_usage: Per-instance disk usage
    @type offline_nodes: list of strings
    @param offline_nodes: List of offline nodes
    @type bad_nodes: list of strings
    @param bad_nodes: List of faulty nodes
    @type live_data: dict; instance name as key
    @param live_data: Per-instance live data
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    @type wrongnode_inst: set
    @param wrongnode_inst: Set of instances running on wrong node(s)
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    @type console: dict; instance name as key
    @param console: Per-instance console information
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    @type nodes: dict; node name as key
    @param nodes: Node objects
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    """
    assert len(set(bad_nodes) & set(offline_nodes)) == len(offline_nodes), \
           "Offline nodes not included in bad nodes"
    assert not (set(live_data.keys()) & set(bad_nodes)), \
           "Found live data for bad or offline nodes"

    self.instances = instances
    self.cluster = cluster
    self.disk_usage = disk_usage
    self.offline_nodes = offline_nodes
    self.bad_nodes = bad_nodes
    self.live_data = live_data
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    self.console = console
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    self.nodes = nodes
    self.groups = groups
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    # Used for individual rows
    self.inst_hvparams = None
    self.inst_beparams = None
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    self.inst_osparams = None
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    self.inst_nicparams = None

  def __iter__(self):
    """Iterate over all instances.

    This function has side-effects and only one instance of the resulting
    generator should be used at a time.

    """
    for inst in self.instances:
      self.inst_hvparams = self.cluster.FillHV(inst, skip_globals=True)
      self.inst_beparams = self.cluster.FillBE(inst)
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      self.inst_osparams = self.cluster.SimpleFillOS(inst.os, inst.osparams)
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      self.inst_nicparams = [self.cluster.SimpleFillNIC(nic.nicparams)
                             for nic in inst.nics]

      yield inst


def _GetInstOperState(ctx, inst):
  """Get instance's operational status.

  @type ctx: L{InstanceQueryData}
  @type inst: L{objects.Instance}
  @param inst: Instance object

  """
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  # Can't use RS_OFFLINE here as it would describe the instance to
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  # be offline when we actually don't know due to missing data
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  if inst.primary_node in ctx.bad_nodes:
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    return _FS_NODATA
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  else:
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    return bool(ctx.live_data.get(inst.name))
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def _GetInstLiveData(name):
  """Build function for retrieving live data.

  @type name: string
  @param name: Live data field name

  """
  def fn(ctx, inst):
    """Get live data for an instance.

    @type ctx: L{InstanceQueryData}
    @type inst: L{objects.Instance}
    @param inst: Instance object

    """
    if (inst.primary_node in ctx.bad_nodes or
        inst.primary_node in ctx.offline_nodes):
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      # Can't use RS_OFFLINE here as it would describe the instance to be
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      # offline when we actually don't know due to missing data
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      return _FS_NODATA
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