locking.py 29 KB
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#
#

# Copyright (C) 2006, 2007 Google Inc.
#
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
# General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
# 02110-1301, USA.

"""Module implementing the Ganeti locking code."""

# pylint: disable-msg=W0613,W0201

import threading
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# Wouldn't it be better to define LockingError in the locking module?
# Well, for now that's how the rest of the code does it...
from ganeti import errors
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from ganeti import utils
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class SharedLock:
  """Implements a shared lock.

  Multiple threads can acquire the lock in a shared way, calling
  acquire_shared().  In order to acquire the lock in an exclusive way threads
  can call acquire_exclusive().

  The lock prevents starvation but does not guarantee that threads will acquire
  the shared lock in the order they queued for it, just that they will
  eventually do so.

  """
  def __init__(self):
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    """Construct a new SharedLock"""
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    # we have two conditions, c_shr and c_exc, sharing the same lock.
    self.__lock = threading.Lock()
    self.__turn_shr = threading.Condition(self.__lock)
    self.__turn_exc = threading.Condition(self.__lock)

    # current lock holders
    self.__shr = set()
    self.__exc = None

    # lock waiters
    self.__nwait_exc = 0
    self.__nwait_shr = 0
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    self.__npass_shr = 0
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    # is this lock in the deleted state?
    self.__deleted = False

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  def __is_sharer(self):
    """Is the current thread sharing the lock at this time?"""
    return threading.currentThread() in self.__shr

  def __is_exclusive(self):
    """Is the current thread holding the lock exclusively at this time?"""
    return threading.currentThread() == self.__exc

  def __is_owned(self, shared=-1):
    """Is the current thread somehow owning the lock at this time?

    This is a private version of the function, which presumes you're holding
    the internal lock.

    """
    if shared < 0:
      return self.__is_sharer() or self.__is_exclusive()
    elif shared:
      return self.__is_sharer()
    else:
      return self.__is_exclusive()

  def _is_owned(self, shared=-1):
    """Is the current thread somehow owning the lock at this time?

    Args:
      shared:
        < 0: check for any type of ownership (default)
        0: check for exclusive ownership
        > 0: check for shared ownership

    """
    self.__lock.acquire()
    try:
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      result = self.__is_owned(shared=shared)
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    finally:
      self.__lock.release()

    return result

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  def __wait(self, c):
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    """Wait on the given condition, and raise an exception if the current lock
    is declared deleted in the meantime.

    Args:
      c: condition to wait on

    """
    c.wait()
    if self.__deleted:
      raise errors.LockError('deleted lock')

  def __exclusive_acquire(self):
    """Acquire the lock exclusively.

    This is a private function that presumes you are already holding the
    internal lock. It's defined separately to avoid code duplication between
    acquire() and delete()

    """
    self.__nwait_exc += 1
    try:
      # This is to save ourselves from a nasty race condition that could
      # theoretically make the sharers starve.
      if self.__nwait_shr > 0 or self.__nwait_exc > 1:
        self.__wait(self.__turn_exc)

      while len(self.__shr) > 0 or self.__exc is not None:
        self.__wait(self.__turn_exc)

      self.__exc = threading.currentThread()
    finally:
      self.__nwait_exc -= 1

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    assert self.__npass_shr == 0, "SharedLock: internal fairness violation"

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  def acquire(self, blocking=1, shared=0):
    """Acquire a shared lock.

    Args:
      shared: whether to acquire in shared mode. By default an exclusive lock
              will be acquired.
      blocking: whether to block while trying to acquire or to operate in try-lock mode.
                this locking mode is not supported yet.

    """
    if not blocking:
      # We don't have non-blocking mode for now
      raise NotImplementedError

    self.__lock.acquire()
    try:
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      if self.__deleted:
        raise errors.LockError('deleted lock')

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      # We cannot acquire the lock if we already have it
      assert not self.__is_owned(), "double acquire() on a non-recursive lock"
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      assert self.__npass_shr >= 0, "Internal fairness condition weirdness"
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      if shared:
        self.__nwait_shr += 1
        try:
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          wait = False
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          # If there is an exclusive holder waiting we have to wait.  We'll
          # only do this once, though, when we start waiting for the lock. Then
          # we'll just wait while there are no exclusive holders.
          if self.__nwait_exc > 0:
            # TODO: if !blocking...
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            wait = True
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            self.__wait(self.__turn_shr)
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          while self.__exc is not None:
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            wait = True
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            # TODO: if !blocking...
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            self.__wait(self.__turn_shr)
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          self.__shr.add(threading.currentThread())
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          # If we were waiting note that we passed
          if wait:
            self.__npass_shr -= 1

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        finally:
          self.__nwait_shr -= 1

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        assert self.__npass_shr >= 0, "Internal fairness condition weirdness"
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      else:
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        # TODO: if !blocking...
        # (or modify __exclusive_acquire for non-blocking mode)
        self.__exclusive_acquire()
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    finally:
      self.__lock.release()

    return True

  def release(self):
    """Release a Shared Lock.

    You must have acquired the lock, either in shared or in exclusive mode,
    before calling this function.

    """
    self.__lock.acquire()
    try:
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      assert self.__npass_shr >= 0, "Internal fairness condition weirdness"
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      # Autodetect release type
      if self.__is_exclusive():
        self.__exc = None

        # An exclusive holder has just had the lock, time to put it in shared
        # mode if there are shared holders waiting. Otherwise wake up the next
        # exclusive holder.
        if self.__nwait_shr > 0:
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          # Make sure at least the ones which were blocked pass.
          self.__npass_shr = self.__nwait_shr
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          self.__turn_shr.notifyAll()
        elif self.__nwait_exc > 0:
         self.__turn_exc.notify()

      elif self.__is_sharer():
        self.__shr.remove(threading.currentThread())

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        # If there are shared holders waiting (and not just scheduled to pass)
        # there *must* be an exclusive holder waiting as well; otherwise what
        # were they waiting for?
        assert (self.__nwait_exc > 0 or self.__npass_shr > 0 or
                self.__nwait_shr == 0), \
               "Lock sharers waiting while no exclusive is queueing"

        # If there are no more shared holders either in or scheduled to pass,
        # and some exclusive holders are waiting let's wake one up.
        if (len(self.__shr) == 0 and
            self.__nwait_exc > 0 and
            not self.__npass_shr > 0):
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          self.__turn_exc.notify()

      else:
        assert False, "Cannot release non-owned lock"

    finally:
      self.__lock.release()

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  def delete(self, blocking=1):
    """Delete a Shared Lock.

    This operation will declare the lock for removal. First the lock will be
    acquired in exclusive mode if you don't already own it, then the lock
    will be put in a state where any future and pending acquire() fail.

    Args:
      blocking: whether to block while trying to acquire or to operate in
                try-lock mode.  this locking mode is not supported yet unless
                you are already holding exclusively the lock.

    """
    self.__lock.acquire()
    try:
      assert not self.__is_sharer(), "cannot delete() a lock while sharing it"

      if self.__deleted:
        raise errors.LockError('deleted lock')

      if not self.__is_exclusive():
        if not blocking:
          # We don't have non-blocking mode for now
          raise NotImplementedError
        self.__exclusive_acquire()

      self.__deleted = True
      self.__exc = None
      # Wake up everybody, they will fail acquiring the lock and
      # raise an exception instead.
      self.__turn_exc.notifyAll()
      self.__turn_shr.notifyAll()

    finally:
      self.__lock.release()

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class LockSet:
  """Implements a set of locks.

  This abstraction implements a set of shared locks for the same resource type,
  distinguished by name. The user can lock a subset of the resources and the
  LockSet will take care of acquiring the locks always in the same order, thus
  preventing deadlock.

  All the locks needed in the same set must be acquired together, though.

  """
  def __init__(self, members=None):
    """Constructs a new LockSet.

    Args:
      members: initial members of the set

    """
    # Used internally to guarantee coherency.
    self.__lock = SharedLock()

    # The lockdict indexes the relationship name -> lock
    # The order-of-locking is implied by the alphabetical order of names
    self.__lockdict = {}

    if members is not None:
      for name in members:
        self.__lockdict[name] = SharedLock()

    # The owner dict contains the set of locks each thread owns. For
    # performance each thread can access its own key without a global lock on
    # this structure. It is paramount though that *no* other type of access is
    # done to this structure (eg. no looping over its keys). *_owner helper
    # function are defined to guarantee access is correct, but in general never
    # do anything different than __owners[threading.currentThread()], or there
    # will be trouble.
    self.__owners = {}

  def _is_owned(self):
    """Is the current thread a current level owner?"""
    return threading.currentThread() in self.__owners

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  def _add_owned(self, name=None):
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    """Note the current thread owns the given lock"""
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    if name is None:
      if not self._is_owned():
        self.__owners[threading.currentThread()] = set()
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    else:
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      if self._is_owned():
        self.__owners[threading.currentThread()].add(name)
      else:
        self.__owners[threading.currentThread()] = set([name])

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  def _del_owned(self, name=None):
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    """Note the current thread owns the given lock"""

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    if name is not None:
      self.__owners[threading.currentThread()].remove(name)

    # Only remove the key if we don't hold the set-lock as well
    if (not self.__lock._is_owned() and
        not self.__owners[threading.currentThread()]):
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      del self.__owners[threading.currentThread()]

  def _list_owned(self):
    """Get the set of resource names owned by the current thread"""
    if self._is_owned():
      return self.__owners[threading.currentThread()].copy()
    else:
      return set()

  def __names(self):
    """Return the current set of names.

    Only call this function while holding __lock and don't iterate on the
    result after releasing the lock.

    """
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    return self.__lockdict.keys()
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  def _names(self):
    """Return a copy of the current set of elements.

    Used only for debugging purposes.
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    """
    self.__lock.acquire(shared=1)
    try:
      result = self.__names()
    finally:
      self.__lock.release()
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    return set(result)
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  def acquire(self, names, blocking=1, shared=0):
    """Acquire a set of resource locks.

    Args:
      names: the names of the locks which shall be acquired.
             (special lock names, or instance/node names)
      shared: whether to acquire in shared mode. By default an exclusive lock
              will be acquired.
      blocking: whether to block while trying to acquire or to operate in try-lock mode.
                this locking mode is not supported yet.

    Returns:
      True: when all the locks are successfully acquired

    Raises:
      errors.LockError: when any lock we try to acquire has been deleted
      before we succeed. In this case none of the locks requested will be
      acquired.

    """
    if not blocking:
      # We don't have non-blocking mode for now
      raise NotImplementedError

    # Check we don't already own locks at this level
    assert not self._is_owned(), "Cannot acquire locks in the same set twice"

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    if names is None:
      # If no names are given acquire the whole set by not letting new names
      # being added before we release, and getting the current list of names.
      # Some of them may then be deleted later, but we'll cope with this.
      #
      # We'd like to acquire this lock in a shared way, as it's nice if
      # everybody else can use the instances at the same time. If are acquiring
      # them exclusively though they won't be able to do this anyway, though,
      # so we'll get the list lock exclusively as well in order to be able to
      # do add() on the set while owning it.
      self.__lock.acquire(shared=shared)
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      try:
        # note we own the set-lock
        self._add_owned()
        names = self.__names()
      except:
        # We shouldn't have problems adding the lock to the owners list, but
        # if we did we'll try to release this lock and re-raise exception.
        # Of course something is going to be really wrong, after this.
        self.__lock.release()
        raise
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    try:
      # Support passing in a single resource to acquire rather than many
      if isinstance(names, basestring):
        names = [names]
      else:
        names.sort()

      acquire_list = []
      # First we look the locks up on __lockdict. We have no way of being sure
      # they will still be there after, but this makes it a lot faster should
      # just one of them be the already wrong
      for lname in names:
        try:
          lock = self.__lockdict[lname] # raises KeyError if the lock is not there
          acquire_list.append((lname, lock))
        except (KeyError):
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          if self.__lock._is_owned():
            # We are acquiring all the set, it doesn't matter if this particular
            # element is not there anymore.
            continue
          else:
            raise errors.LockError('non-existing lock in set (%s)' % lname)
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      # This will hold the locknames we effectively acquired.
      acquired = set()
      # Now acquire_list contains a sorted list of resources and locks we want.
      # In order to get them we loop on this (private) list and acquire() them.
      # We gave no real guarantee they will still exist till this is done but
      # .acquire() itself is safe and will alert us if the lock gets deleted.
      for (lname, lock) in acquire_list:
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        try:
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          lock.acquire(shared=shared) # raises LockError if the lock is deleted
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          # now the lock cannot be deleted, we have it!
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          self._add_owned(name=lname)
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          acquired.add(lname)
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        except (errors.LockError):
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          if self.__lock._is_owned():
            # We are acquiring all the set, it doesn't matter if this particular
            # element is not there anymore.
            continue
          else:
            name_fail = lname
            for lname in self._list_owned():
              self.__lockdict[lname].release()
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              self._del_owned(name=lname)
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            raise errors.LockError('non-existing lock in set (%s)' % name_fail)
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        except:
          # We shouldn't have problems adding the lock to the owners list, but
          # if we did we'll try to release this lock and re-raise exception.
          # Of course something is going to be really wrong, after this.
          if lock._is_owned():
            lock.release()
            raise
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    except:
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      # If something went wrong and we had the set-lock let's release it...
      if self.__lock._is_owned():
        self.__lock.release()
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      raise
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    return acquired
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  def release(self, names=None):
    """Release a set of resource locks, at the same level.

    You must have acquired the locks, either in shared or in exclusive mode,
    before releasing them.

    Args:
      names: the names of the locks which shall be released.
             (defaults to all the locks acquired at that level).

    """
    assert self._is_owned(), "release() on lock set while not owner"

    # Support passing in a single resource to release rather than many
    if isinstance(names, basestring):
      names = [names]

    if names is None:
      names = self._list_owned()
    else:
      names = set(names)
      assert self._list_owned().issuperset(names), (
               "release() on unheld resources %s" %
               names.difference(self._list_owned()))

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    # First of all let's release the "all elements" lock, if set.
    # After this 'add' can work again
    if self.__lock._is_owned():
      self.__lock.release()
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      self._del_owned()
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    for lockname in names:
      # If we are sure the lock doesn't leave __lockdict without being
      # exclusively held we can do this...
      self.__lockdict[lockname].release()
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      self._del_owned(name=lockname)
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  def add(self, names, acquired=0, shared=0):
    """Add a new set of elements to the set

    Args:
      names: names of the new elements to add
      acquired: pre-acquire the new resource?
      shared: is the pre-acquisition shared?

    """
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    assert not self.__lock._is_owned(shared=1), (
           "Cannot add new elements while sharing the set-lock")

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    # Support passing in a single resource to add rather than many
    if isinstance(names, basestring):
      names = [names]

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    # If we don't already own the set-level lock acquire it in an exclusive way
    # we'll get it and note we need to release it later.
    release_lock = False
    if not self.__lock._is_owned():
      release_lock = True
      self.__lock.acquire()

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    try:
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      invalid_names = set(self.__names()).intersection(names)
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      if invalid_names:
        # This must be an explicit raise, not an assert, because assert is
        # turned off when using optimization, and this can happen because of
        # concurrency even if the user doesn't want it.
        raise errors.LockError("duplicate add() (%s)" % invalid_names)

      for lockname in names:
        lock = SharedLock()

        if acquired:
          lock.acquire(shared=shared)
          # now the lock cannot be deleted, we have it!
          try:
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            self._add_owned(name=lockname)
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          except:
            # We shouldn't have problems adding the lock to the owners list,
            # but if we did we'll try to release this lock and re-raise
            # exception.  Of course something is going to be really wrong,
            # after this.  On the other hand the lock hasn't been added to the
            # __lockdict yet so no other threads should be pending on it. This
            # release is just a safety measure.
            lock.release()
            raise

        self.__lockdict[lockname] = lock

    finally:
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      # Only release __lock if we were not holding it previously.
      if release_lock:
        self.__lock.release()
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    return True

  def remove(self, names, blocking=1):
    """Remove elements from the lock set.

    You can either not hold anything in the lockset or already hold a superset
    of the elements you want to delete, exclusively.

    Args:
      names: names of the resource to remove.
      blocking: whether to block while trying to acquire or to operate in
                try-lock mode.  this locking mode is not supported yet unless
                you are already holding exclusively the locks.

    Returns:
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      A list of lock which we removed. The list is always equal to the names
      list if we were holding all the locks exclusively.
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    """
    if not blocking and not self._is_owned():
      # We don't have non-blocking mode for now
      raise NotImplementedError

    # Support passing in a single resource to remove rather than many
    if isinstance(names, basestring):
      names = [names]

    # If we own any subset of this lock it must be a superset of what we want
    # to delete. The ownership must also be exclusive, but that will be checked
    # by the lock itself.
    assert not self._is_owned() or self._list_owned().issuperset(names), (
      "remove() on acquired lockset while not owning all elements")

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    removed = []
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    for lname in names:
      # Calling delete() acquires the lock exclusively if we don't already own
      # it, and causes all pending and subsequent lock acquires to fail. It's
      # fine to call it out of order because delete() also implies release(),
      # and the assertion above guarantees that if we either already hold
      # everything we want to delete, or we hold none.
      try:
        self.__lockdict[lname].delete()
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        removed.append(lname)
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      except (KeyError, errors.LockError):
        # This cannot happen if we were already holding it, verify:
        assert not self._is_owned(), "remove failed while holding lockset"
      else:
        # If no LockError was raised we are the ones who deleted the lock.
        # This means we can safely remove it from lockdict, as any further or
        # pending delete() or acquire() will fail (and nobody can have the lock
        # since before our call to delete()).
        #
        # This is done in an else clause because if the exception was thrown
        # it's the job of the one who actually deleted it.
        del self.__lockdict[lname]
        # And let's remove it from our private list if we owned it.
        if self._is_owned():
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          self._del_owned(name=lname)
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    return removed
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# Locking levels, must be acquired in increasing order.
# Current rules are:
#   - at level LEVEL_CLUSTER resides the Big Ganeti Lock (BGL) which must be
#   acquired before performing any operation, either in shared or in exclusive
#   mode. acquiring the BGL in exclusive mode is discouraged and should be
#   avoided.
#   - at levels LEVEL_NODE and LEVEL_INSTANCE reside node and instance locks.
#   If you need more than one node, or more than one instance, acquire them at
#   the same time.
#  - level LEVEL_CONFIG contains the configuration lock, which you must acquire
#  before reading or changing the config file.
LEVEL_CLUSTER = 0
LEVEL_NODE = 1
LEVEL_INSTANCE = 2
LEVEL_CONFIG = 3

LEVELS = [LEVEL_CLUSTER,
          LEVEL_NODE,
          LEVEL_INSTANCE,
          LEVEL_CONFIG]

# Lock levels which are modifiable
LEVELS_MOD = [LEVEL_NODE, LEVEL_INSTANCE]

# Constant for the big ganeti lock and config lock
BGL = 'BGL'
CONFIG = 'config'


class GanetiLockManager:
  """The Ganeti Locking Library

  The purpouse of this small library is to manage locking for ganeti clusters
  in a central place, while at the same time doing dynamic checks against
  possible deadlocks. It will also make it easier to transition to a different
  lock type should we migrate away from python threads.

  """
  _instance = None

  def __init__(self, nodes=None, instances=None):
    """Constructs a new GanetiLockManager object.

    There should be only a
    GanetiLockManager object at any time, so this function raises an error if this
    is not the case.

    Args:
      nodes: list of node names
      instances: list of instance names

    """
    assert self.__class__._instance is None, "double GanetiLockManager instance"
    self.__class__._instance = self

    # The keyring contains all the locks, at their level and in the correct
    # locking order.
    self.__keyring = {
      LEVEL_CLUSTER: LockSet([BGL]),
      LEVEL_NODE: LockSet(nodes),
      LEVEL_INSTANCE: LockSet(instances),
      LEVEL_CONFIG: LockSet([CONFIG]),
    }

  def _names(self, level):
    """List the lock names at the given level.
    Used for debugging/testing purposes.

    Args:
      level: the level whose list of locks to get

    """
    assert level in LEVELS, "Invalid locking level %s" % level
    return self.__keyring[level]._names()

  def _is_owned(self, level):
    """Check whether we are owning locks at the given level

    """
    return self.__keyring[level]._is_owned()

  def _list_owned(self, level):
    """Get the set of owned locks at the given level

    """
    return self.__keyring[level]._list_owned()

  def _upper_owned(self, level):
    """Check that we don't own any lock at a level greater than the given one.

    """
    # This way of checking only works if LEVELS[i] = i, which we check for in
    # the test cases.
    return utils.any((self._is_owned(l) for l in LEVELS[level + 1:]))

  def _BGL_owned(self):
    """Check if the current thread owns the BGL.

    Both an exclusive or a shared acquisition work.

    """
    return BGL in self.__keyring[LEVEL_CLUSTER]._list_owned()

  def _contains_BGL(self, level, names):
    """Check if acting on the given level and set of names will change the
    status of the Big Ganeti Lock.

    """
    return level == LEVEL_CLUSTER and (names is None or BGL in names)

  def acquire(self, level, names, blocking=1, shared=0):
    """Acquire a set of resource locks, at the same level.

    Args:
      level: the level at which the locks shall be acquired.
             It must be a memmber of LEVELS.
      names: the names of the locks which shall be acquired.
             (special lock names, or instance/node names)
      shared: whether to acquire in shared mode. By default an exclusive lock
              will be acquired.
      blocking: whether to block while trying to acquire or to operate in try-lock mode.
                this locking mode is not supported yet.

    """
    assert level in LEVELS, "Invalid locking level %s" % level

    # Check that we are either acquiring the Big Ganeti Lock or we already own
    # it. Some "legacy" opcodes need to be sure they are run non-concurrently
    # so even if we've migrated we need to at least share the BGL to be
    # compatible with them. Of course if we own the BGL exclusively there's no
    # point in acquiring any other lock, unless perhaps we are half way through
    # the migration of the current opcode.
    assert (self._contains_BGL(level, names) or self._BGL_owned()), (
            "You must own the Big Ganeti Lock before acquiring any other")

    # Check we don't own locks at the same or upper levels.
    assert not self._upper_owned(level), ("Cannot acquire locks at a level" 
           " while owning some at a greater one")

    # Acquire the locks in the set.
    return self.__keyring[level].acquire(names, shared=shared,
                                         blocking=blocking)

  def release(self, level, names=None):
    """Release a set of resource locks, at the same level.

    You must have acquired the locks, either in shared or in exclusive mode,
    before releasing them.

    Args:
      level: the level at which the locks shall be released.
             It must be a memmber of LEVELS.
      names: the names of the locks which shall be released.
             (defaults to all the locks acquired at that level).

    """
    assert level in LEVELS, "Invalid locking level %s" % level
    assert (not self._contains_BGL(level, names) or
            not self._upper_owned(LEVEL_CLUSTER)), (
            "Cannot release the Big Ganeti Lock while holding something"
            " at upper levels")

    # Release will complain if we don't own the locks already
    return self.__keyring[level].release(names)

  def add(self, level, names, acquired=0, shared=0):
    """Add locks at the specified level.

    Args:
      level: the level at which the locks shall be added.
             It must be a memmber of LEVELS_MOD.
      names: names of the locks to acquire
      acquired: whether to acquire the newly added locks
      shared: whether the acquisition will be shared
    """
    assert level in LEVELS_MOD, "Invalid or immutable level %s" % level
    assert self._BGL_owned(), ("You must own the BGL before performing other"
           " operations")
    assert not self._upper_owned(level), ("Cannot add locks at a level"
           " while owning some at a greater one")
    return self.__keyring[level].add(names, acquired=acquired, shared=shared)

  def remove(self, level, names, blocking=1):
    """Remove locks from the specified level.

    You must either already own the locks you are trying to remove exclusively
    or not own any lock at an upper level.

    Args:
      level: the level at which the locks shall be removed.
             It must be a memmber of LEVELS_MOD.
      names: the names of the locks which shall be removed.
             (special lock names, or instance/node names)
      blocking: whether to block while trying to operate in try-lock mode.
                this locking mode is not supported yet.

    """
    assert level in LEVELS_MOD, "Invalid or immutable level %s" % level
    assert self._BGL_owned(), ("You must own the BGL before performing other"
           " operations")
    # Check we either own the level or don't own anything from here up.
    # LockSet.remove() will check the case in which we don't own all the needed
    # resources, or we have a shared ownership.
    assert self._is_owned(level) or not self._upper_owned(level), (
           "Cannot remove locks at a level while not owning it or"
           " owning some at a greater one")
851
    return self.__keyring[level].remove(names, blocking=blocking)