__init__.py 35.5 KB
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# Copyright 2011-2013 GRNET S.A. All rights reserved.
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#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
# without modification, are permitted provided that the following
# conditions are met:
#
#   1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above
#      copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
#      disclaimer.
#
#   2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
#      copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
#      disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
#      provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY GRNET S.A. ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS
# OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
# WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
# PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL GRNET S.A OR
# CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
# SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
# LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
# USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED
# AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
# ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
# POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
#
# The views and conclusions contained in the software and
# documentation are those of the authors and should not be
# interpreted as representing official policies, either expressed
# or implied, of GRNET S.A.

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from threading import enumerate as activethreads
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from os import fstat
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from hashlib import new as newhashlib
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from time import time
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from binascii import hexlify
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from kamaki.clients import SilentEvent, sendlog
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from kamaki.clients.pithos.rest_api import PithosRestClient
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from kamaki.clients.storage import ClientError
from kamaki.clients.utils import path4url, filter_in
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from StringIO import StringIO
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def _pithos_hash(block, blockhash):
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    h = newhashlib(blockhash)
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    h.update(block.rstrip('\x00'))
    return h.hexdigest()

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def _range_up(start, end, a_range):
    if a_range:
        (rstart, rend) = a_range.split('-')
        (rstart, rend) = (int(rstart), int(rend))
        if rstart > end or rend < start:
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            return (0, 0)
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        if rstart > start:
            start = rstart
        if rend < end:
            end = rend
    return (start, end)

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class PithosClient(PithosRestClient):
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    """GRNet Pithos API client"""
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    def __init__(self, base_url, token, account=None, container=None):
        super(PithosClient, self).__init__(base_url, token, account, container)
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    def purge_container(self, container=None):
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        """Delete an empty container and destroy associated blocks
        """
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        cnt_back_up = self.container
        try:
            self.container = container or cnt_back_up
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            self.container_delete(until=unicode(time()))
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        finally:
            self.container = cnt_back_up
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    def upload_object_unchunked(
            self, obj, f,
            withHashFile=False,
            size=None,
            etag=None,
            content_encoding=None,
            content_disposition=None,
            content_type=None,
            sharing=None,
            public=None):
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        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param f: open file descriptor

        :param withHashFile: (bool)

        :param size: (int) size of data to upload

        :param etag: (str)

        :param content_encoding: (str)

        :param content_disposition: (str)

        :param content_type: (str)

        :param sharing: {'read':[user and/or grp names],
            'write':[usr and/or grp names]}

        :param public: (bool)
        """
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        self._assert_container()
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        if withHashFile:
            data = f.read()
            try:
                import json
                data = json.dumps(json.loads(data))
            except ValueError:
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                raise ClientError('"%s" is not json-formated' % f.name, 1)
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            except SyntaxError:
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                msg = '"%s" is not a valid hashmap file' % f.name
                raise ClientError(msg, 1)
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            f = StringIO(data)
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        else:
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            data = f.read(size) if size else f.read()
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        self.object_put(
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            obj,
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            data=data,
            etag=etag,
            content_encoding=content_encoding,
            content_disposition=content_disposition,
            content_type=content_type,
            permissions=sharing,
            public=public,
            success=201)

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    def create_object_by_manifestation(
            self, obj,
            etag=None,
            content_encoding=None,
            content_disposition=None,
            content_type=None,
            sharing=None,
            public=None):
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        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param etag: (str)

        :param content_encoding: (str)

        :param content_disposition: (str)

        :param content_type: (str)

        :param sharing: {'read':[user and/or grp names],
            'write':[usr and/or grp names]}

        :param public: (bool)
        """
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        self._assert_container()
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        self.object_put(
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            obj,
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            content_length=0,
            etag=etag,
            content_encoding=content_encoding,
            content_disposition=content_disposition,
            content_type=content_type,
            permissions=sharing,
            public=public,
            manifest='%s/%s' % (self.container, obj))

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    # upload_* auxiliary methods
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    def _put_block_async(self, data, hash, upload_gen=None):
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        event = SilentEvent(method=self._put_block, data=data, hash=hash)
        event.start()
        return event

    def _put_block(self, data, hash):
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        r = self.container_post(
            update=True,
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            content_type='application/octet-stream',
            content_length=len(data),
            data=data,
            format='json')
        assert r.json[0] == hash, 'Local hash does not match server'

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    def _get_file_block_info(self, fileobj, size=None):
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        meta = self.get_container_info()
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        blocksize = int(meta['x-container-block-size'])
        blockhash = meta['x-container-block-hash']
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        size = size if size is not None else fstat(fileobj.fileno()).st_size
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        nblocks = 1 + (size - 1) // blocksize
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        return (blocksize, blockhash, size, nblocks)

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    def _get_missing_hashes(
            self, obj, json,
            size=None,
            format='json',
            hashmap=True,
            content_type=None,
            etag=None,
            content_encoding=None,
            content_disposition=None,
            permissions=None,
            public=None,
            success=(201, 409)):
        r = self.object_put(
            obj,
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            format='json',
            hashmap=True,
            content_type=content_type,
            json=json,
            etag=etag,
            content_encoding=content_encoding,
            content_disposition=content_disposition,
            permissions=permissions,
            public=public,
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            success=success)
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        return None if r.status_code == 201 else r.json
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    def _culculate_blocks_for_upload(
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            self, blocksize, blockhash, size, nblocks, hashes, hmap, fileobj,
            hash_cb=None):
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        offset = 0
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        if hash_cb:
            hash_gen = hash_cb(nblocks)
            hash_gen.next()

        for i in range(nblocks):
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            block = fileobj.read(min(blocksize, size - offset))
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            bytes = len(block)
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            hash = _pithos_hash(block, blockhash)
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            hashes.append(hash)
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            hmap[hash] = (offset, bytes)
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            offset += bytes
            if hash_cb:
                hash_gen.next()
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        msg = 'Failed to calculate uploaded blocks:'
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        ' Offset and object size do not match'
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        assert offset == size, msg
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    def _upload_missing_blocks(self, missing, hmap, fileobj, upload_gen=None):
        """upload missing blocks asynchronously"""
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        self._init_thread_limit()
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        flying = []
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        failures = []
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        for hash in missing:
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            offset, bytes = hmap[hash]
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            fileobj.seek(offset)
            data = fileobj.read(bytes)
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            r = self._put_block_async(data, hash, upload_gen)
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            flying.append(r)
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            unfinished = self._watch_thread_limit(flying)
            for thread in set(flying).difference(unfinished):
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                if thread.exception:
                    failures.append(thread)
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                    if isinstance(
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                            thread.exception,
                            ClientError) and thread.exception.status == 502:
                        self.POOLSIZE = self._thread_limit
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                elif thread.isAlive():
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                    flying.append(thread)
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                elif upload_gen:
                    try:
                        upload_gen.next()
                    except:
                        pass
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            flying = unfinished

        for thread in flying:
            thread.join()
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            if thread.exception:
                failures.append(thread)
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            elif upload_gen:
                try:
                    upload_gen.next()
                except:
                    pass
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        return [failure.kwargs['hash'] for failure in failures]
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    def upload_object(
            self, obj, f,
            size=None,
            hash_cb=None,
            upload_cb=None,
            etag=None,
            content_encoding=None,
            content_disposition=None,
            content_type=None,
            sharing=None,
            public=None):
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        """Upload an object using multiple connections (threads)

        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param f: open file descriptor (rb)

        :param hash_cb: optional progress.bar object for calculating hashes

        :param upload_cb: optional progress.bar object for uploading

        :param etag: (str)

        :param content_encoding: (str)

        :param content_disposition: (str)

        :param content_type: (str)

        :param sharing: {'read':[user and/or grp names],
            'write':[usr and/or grp names]}

        :param public: (bool)
        """
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        self._assert_container()
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        #init
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        block_info = (blocksize, blockhash, size, nblocks) =\
            self._get_file_block_info(f, size)
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        (hashes, hmap, offset) = ([], {}, 0)
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        if not content_type:
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            content_type = 'application/octet-stream'
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        self._culculate_blocks_for_upload(
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            *block_info,
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            hashes=hashes,
            hmap=hmap,
            fileobj=f,
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            hash_cb=hash_cb)

        hashmap = dict(bytes=size, hashes=hashes)
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        missing = self._get_missing_hashes(
            obj, hashmap,
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            content_type=content_type,
            size=size,
            etag=etag,
            content_encoding=content_encoding,
            content_disposition=content_disposition,
            permissions=sharing,
            public=public)
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        if missing is None:
            return
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        if upload_cb:
            upload_gen = upload_cb(len(missing))
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            for i in range(len(missing), len(hashmap['hashes']) + 1):
                try:
                    upload_gen.next()
                except:
                    upload_gen = None
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        else:
            upload_gen = None

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        retries = 7
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        try:
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            while retries:
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                sendlog.info('%s blocks missing' % len(missing))
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                num_of_blocks = len(missing)
                missing = self._upload_missing_blocks(
                    missing,
                    hmap,
                    f,
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                    upload_gen)
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                if missing:
                    if num_of_blocks == len(missing):
                        retries -= 1
                    else:
                        num_of_blocks = len(missing)
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                else:
                    break
            if missing:
                raise ClientError(
                    '%s blocks failed to upload' % len(missing),
                    status=800)
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        except KeyboardInterrupt:
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            sendlog.info('- - - wait for threads to finish')
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            for thread in activethreads():
                thread.join()
            raise

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        self.object_put(
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            obj,
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            format='json',
            hashmap=True,
            content_type=content_type,
            json=hashmap,
            success=201)

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    # download_* auxiliary methods
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    def _get_remote_blocks_info(self, obj, **restargs):
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        #retrieve object hashmap
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        myrange = restargs.pop('data_range', None)
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        hashmap = self.get_object_hashmap(obj, **restargs)
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        restargs['data_range'] = myrange
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        blocksize = int(hashmap['block_size'])
        blockhash = hashmap['block_hash']
        total_size = hashmap['bytes']
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        #assert total_size/blocksize + 1 == len(hashmap['hashes'])
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        map_dict = {}
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        for i, h in enumerate(hashmap['hashes']):
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            #  map_dict[h] = i   CHAGE
            if h in map_dict:
                map_dict[h].append(i)
            else:
                map_dict[h] = [i]
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        return (blocksize, blockhash, total_size, hashmap['hashes'], map_dict)
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    def _dump_blocks_sync(
            self, obj, remote_hashes, blocksize, total_size, dst, range,
            **args):
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        for blockid, blockhash in enumerate(remote_hashes):
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            if blockhash:
                start = blocksize * blockid
                is_last = start + blocksize > total_size
                end = (total_size - 1) if is_last else (start + blocksize - 1)
                (start, end) = _range_up(start, end, range)
                args['data_range'] = 'bytes=%s-%s' % (start, end)
                r = self.object_get(obj, success=(200, 206), **args)
                self._cb_next()
                dst.write(r.content)
                dst.flush()
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    def _get_block_async(self, obj, **args):
        event = SilentEvent(self.object_get, obj, success=(200, 206), **args)
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        event.start()
        return event
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    def _hash_from_file(self, fp, start, size, blockhash):
        fp.seek(start)
        block = fp.read(size)
        h = newhashlib(blockhash)
        h.update(block.strip('\x00'))
        return hexlify(h.digest())

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    def _thread2file(self, flying, local_file, offset=0, **restargs):
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        """write the results of a greenleted rest call to a file
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        :param offset: the offset of the file up to blocksize
        - e.g. if the range is 10-100, all blocks will be written to
        normal_position - 10
        """
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        finished = []
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        for i, (start, g) in enumerate(flying.items()):
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            if not g.isAlive():
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                if g.exception:
                    raise g.exception
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                block = g.value.content
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                local_file.seek(start - offset)
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                local_file.write(block)
                self._cb_next()
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                finished.append(flying.pop(start))
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        local_file.flush()
        return finished

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    def _dump_blocks_async(
            self, obj, remote_hashes, blocksize, total_size, local_file,
            blockhash=None, resume=False, filerange=None, **restargs):
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        file_size = fstat(local_file.fileno()).st_size if resume else 0
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        flying = {}
        finished = []
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        offset = 0
        if filerange is not None:
            rstart = int(filerange.split('-')[0])
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            offset = rstart if blocksize > rstart else rstart % blocksize
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        self._init_thread_limit()
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        for block_hash, blockids in remote_hashes.items():
            for blockid in blockids:
                start = blocksize * blockid
                if start < file_size and block_hash == self._hash_from_file(
                        local_file, start, blocksize, blockhash):
                    self._cb_next()
                    continue
                self._watch_thread_limit(flying.values())
                finished += self._thread2file(
                    flying,
                    local_file,
                    offset,
                    **restargs)
                end = total_size - 1 if start + blocksize > total_size\
                    else start + blocksize - 1
                (start, end) = _range_up(start, end, filerange)
                if start == end:
                    self._cb_next()
                    continue
                restargs['async_headers'] = {
                    'Range': 'bytes=%s-%s' % (start, end)}
                flying[start] = self._get_block_async(obj, **restargs)
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        for thread in flying.values():
            thread.join()
        finished += self._thread2file(flying, local_file, offset, **restargs)
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    def download_object(
            self, obj, dst,
            download_cb=None,
            version=None,
            resume=False,
            range_str=None,
            if_match=None,
            if_none_match=None,
            if_modified_since=None,
            if_unmodified_since=None):
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        """Download an object (multiple connections, random blocks)
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        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param dst: open file descriptor (wb+)

        :param download_cb: optional progress.bar object for downloading

        :param version: (str) file version

        :param resume: (bool) if set, preserve already downloaded file parts

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        :param range_str: (str) from, to are file positions (int) in bytes
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        :param if_match: (str)

        :param if_none_match: (str)

        :param if_modified_since: (str) formated date

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        :param if_unmodified_since: (str) formated date"""
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        restargs = dict(
            version=version,
            data_range=None if range_str is None else 'bytes=%s' % range_str,
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            if_match=if_match,
            if_none_match=if_none_match,
            if_modified_since=if_modified_since,
            if_unmodified_since=if_unmodified_since)

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        (
            blocksize,
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            blockhash,
            total_size,
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            hash_list,
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            remote_hashes) = self._get_remote_blocks_info(obj, **restargs)
        assert total_size >= 0

        if download_cb:
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            self.progress_bar_gen = download_cb(len(hash_list))
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            self._cb_next()

        if dst.isatty():
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            self._dump_blocks_sync(
                obj,
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                hash_list,
                blocksize,
                total_size,
                dst,
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                range_str,
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                **restargs)
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        else:
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            self._dump_blocks_async(
                obj,
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                remote_hashes,
                blocksize,
                total_size,
                dst,
                blockhash,
                resume,
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                range_str,
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                **restargs)
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            if not range_str:
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                dst.truncate(total_size)
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        self._complete_cb()

    #Command Progress Bar method
    def _cb_next(self):
        if hasattr(self, 'progress_bar_gen'):
            try:
                self.progress_bar_gen.next()
            except:
                pass
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    def _complete_cb(self):
        while True:
            try:
                self.progress_bar_gen.next()
            except:
                break
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    def get_object_hashmap(
            self, obj,
            version=None,
            if_match=None,
            if_none_match=None,
            if_modified_since=None,
            if_unmodified_since=None,
            data_range=None):
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        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param if_match: (str)

        :param if_none_match: (str)

        :param if_modified_since: (str) formated date

        :param if_unmodified_since: (str) formated date

        :param data_range: (str) from-to where from and to are integers
            denoting file positions in bytes

        :returns: (list)
        """
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        try:
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            r = self.object_get(
                obj,
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                hashmap=True,
                version=version,
                if_etag_match=if_match,
                if_etag_not_match=if_none_match,
                if_modified_since=if_modified_since,
                if_unmodified_since=if_unmodified_since,
                data_range=data_range)
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        except ClientError as err:
            if err.status == 304 or err.status == 412:
                return {}
            raise
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        return r.json
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    def set_account_group(self, group, usernames):
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        """
        :param group: (str)

        :param usernames: (list)
        """
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        self.account_post(update=True, groups={group: usernames})
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    def del_account_group(self, group):
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        """
        :param group: (str)
        """
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        self.account_post(update=True, groups={group: []})
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    def get_account_info(self, until=None):
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        """
        :param until: (str) formated date

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        r = self.account_head(until=until)
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        if r.status_code == 401:
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            raise ClientError("No authorization", status=401)
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        return r.headers
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    def get_account_quota(self):
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        """
        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        return filter_in(
            self.get_account_info(),
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            'X-Account-Policy-Quota',
            exactMatch=True)
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    def get_account_versioning(self):
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        """
        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        return filter_in(
            self.get_account_info(),
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            'X-Account-Policy-Versioning',
            exactMatch=True)
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    def get_account_meta(self, until=None):
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        """
        :meta until: (str) formated date

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        return filter_in(self.get_account_info(until=until), 'X-Account-Meta-')
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    def get_account_group(self):
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        """
        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        return filter_in(self.get_account_info(), 'X-Account-Group-')

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    def set_account_meta(self, metapairs):
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        """
        :param metapairs: (dict) {key1:val1, key2:val2, ...}
        """
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        assert(type(metapairs) is dict)
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        self.account_post(update=True, metadata=metapairs)
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    def del_account_meta(self, metakey):
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        """
        :param metakey: (str) metadatum key
        """
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        self.account_post(update=True, metadata={metakey: ''})
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    def set_account_quota(self, quota):
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        """
        :param quota: (int)
        """
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        self.account_post(update=True, quota=quota)
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    def set_account_versioning(self, versioning):
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        """
        "param versioning: (str)
        """
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        self.account_post(update=True, versioning=versioning)
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    def list_containers(self):
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        """
        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        r = self.account_get()
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        return r.json
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    def del_container(self, until=None, delimiter=None):
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        """
        :param until: (str) formated date

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        :param delimiter: (str) with / empty container
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        :raises ClientError: 404 Container does not exist

        :raises ClientError: 409 Container is not empty
        """
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        self._assert_container()
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        r = self.container_delete(
            until=until,
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            delimiter=delimiter,
            success=(204, 404, 409))
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        if r.status_code == 404:
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            raise ClientError(
                'Container "%s" does not exist' % self.container,
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                r.status_code)
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        elif r.status_code == 409:
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            raise ClientError(
                'Container "%s" is not empty' % self.container,
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                r.status_code)
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    def get_container_versioning(self, container=None):
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        """
        :param container: (str)

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        cnt_back_up = self.container
        try:
            self.container = container or cnt_back_up
            return filter_in(
                self.get_container_info(),
                'X-Container-Policy-Versioning')
        finally:
            self.container = cnt_back_up
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    def get_container_quota(self, container=None):
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        """
        :param container: (str)

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        cnt_back_up = self.container
        try:
            self.container = container or cnt_back_up
            return filter_in(
                self.get_container_info(),
                'X-Container-Policy-Quota')
        finally:
            self.container = cnt_back_up
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    def get_container_info(self, until=None):
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        """
        :param until: (str) formated date

        :returns: (dict)
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        :raises ClientError: 404 Container not found
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        """
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        try:
            r = self.container_head(until=until)
        except ClientError as err:
            err.details.append('for container %s' % self.container)
            raise err
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        return r.headers

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    def get_container_meta(self, until=None):
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        """
        :param until: (str) formated date

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        return filter_in(
            self.get_container_info(until=until),
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            'X-Container-Meta')
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    def get_container_object_meta(self, until=None):
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        """
        :param until: (str) formated date

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        return filter_in(
            self.get_container_info(until=until),
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            'X-Container-Object-Meta')
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    def set_container_meta(self, metapairs):
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        """
        :param metapairs: (dict) {key1:val1, key2:val2, ...}
        """
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        assert(type(metapairs) is dict)
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        self.container_post(update=True, metadata=metapairs)
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    def del_container_meta(self, metakey):
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        """
        :param metakey: (str) metadatum key
        """
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        self.container_post(update=True, metadata={metakey: ''})
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    def set_container_quota(self, quota):
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        """
        :param quota: (int)
        """
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        self.container_post(update=True, quota=quota)
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    def set_container_versioning(self, versioning):
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        """
        :param versioning: (str)
        """
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        self.container_post(update=True, versioning=versioning)
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    def del_object(self, obj, until=None, delimiter=None):
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        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param until: (str) formated date

        :param delimiter: (str)
        """
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        self._assert_container()
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        self.object_delete(obj, until=until, delimiter=delimiter)
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    def set_object_meta(self, obj, metapairs):
        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param metapairs: (dict) {key1:val1, key2:val2, ...}
        """
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        assert(type(metapairs) is dict)
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        self.object_post(obj, update=True, metadata=metapairs)
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    def del_object_meta(self, obj, metakey):
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        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path
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        :param metakey: (str) metadatum key
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        """
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        self.object_post(obj, update=True, metadata={metakey: ''})
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    def publish_object(self, obj):
        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path
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        :returns: (str) access url
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        """
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        self.object_post(obj, update=True, public=True)
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        info = self.get_object_info(obj)
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        pref, sep, rest = self.base_url.partition('//')
        base = rest.split('/')[0]
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        return '%s%s%s/%s' % (pref, sep, base, info['x-object-public'])
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    def unpublish_object(self, obj):
        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path
        """
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        self.object_post(obj, update=True, public=False)
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    def get_object_info(self, obj, version=None):
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        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param version: (str)

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        try:
            r = self.object_head(obj, version=version)
            return r.headers
        except ClientError as ce:
            if ce.status == 404:
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                raise ClientError('Object %s not found' % obj, status=404)
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            raise
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    def get_object_meta(self, obj, version=None):
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        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param version: (str)

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        return filter_in(
            self.get_object_info(obj, version=version),
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            'X-Object-Meta')
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    def get_object_sharing(self, obj):
        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :returns: (dict)
        """
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        r = filter_in(
            self.get_object_info(obj),
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            'X-Object-Sharing',
            exactMatch=True)
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        reply = {}
        if len(r) > 0:
            perms = r['x-object-sharing'].split(';')
            for perm in perms:
                try:
                    perm.index('=')
                except ValueError:
                    raise ClientError('Incorrect reply format')
                (key, val) = perm.strip().split('=')
                reply[key] = val
        return reply
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    def set_object_sharing(
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            self, obj,
            read_permition=False, write_permition=False):
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        """Give read/write permisions to an object.
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        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param read_permition: (list - bool) users and user groups that get
            read permition for this object - False means all previous read
            permissions will be removed

        :param write_perimition: (list - bool) of users and user groups to get
           write permition for this object - False means all previous write
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           permissions will be removed
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        """
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        perms = dict(read=read_permition or '', write=write_permition or '')
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        self.object_post(obj, update=True, permissions=perms)
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    def del_object_sharing(self, obj):
        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path
        """
        self.set_object_sharing(obj)

    def append_object(self, obj, source_file, upload_cb=None):
        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param source_file: open file descriptor
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        :param upload_db: progress.bar for uploading
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        """
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        self._assert_container()
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        meta = self.get_container_info()
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        blocksize = int(meta['x-container-block-size'])
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        filesize = fstat(source_file.fileno()).st_size
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        nblocks = 1 + (filesize - 1) // blocksize
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        offset = 0
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        if upload_cb:
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            upload_gen = upload_cb(nblocks)
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            upload_gen.next()
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        for i in range(nblocks):
            block = source_file.read(min(blocksize, filesize - offset))
            offset += len(block)
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            self.object_post(
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                obj,
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                update=True,
                content_range='bytes */*',
                content_type='application/octet-stream',
                content_length=len(block),
                data=block)

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            if upload_cb:
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                upload_gen.next()
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    def truncate_object(self, obj, upto_bytes):
        """
        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param upto_bytes: max number of bytes to leave on file
        """
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        self.object_post(
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            obj,
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            update=True,
            content_range='bytes 0-%s/*' % upto_bytes,
            content_type='application/octet-stream',
            object_bytes=upto_bytes,
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            source_object=path4url(self.container, obj))
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    def overwrite_object(self, obj, start, end, source_file, upload_cb=None):
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        """Overwrite a part of an object from local source file

        :param obj: (str) remote object path

        :param start: (int) position in bytes to start overwriting from

        :param end: (int) position in bytes to stop overwriting at

        :param source_file: open file descriptor

        :param upload_db: progress.bar for uploading
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        """
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        r = self.get_object_info(obj)
        rf_size = int(r['content-length'])
        if rf_size < int(start):
            raise ClientError(
                'Range start exceeds file size',
                status=416)
        elif rf_size < int(end):
            raise ClientError(
                'Range end exceeds file size',
                status=416)
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        self._assert_container()
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        meta = self.get_container_info()
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        blocksize = int(meta['x-container-block-size'])
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        filesize = fstat(source_file.fileno()).st_size
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        datasize = int(end) - int(start) + 1
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        nblocks = 1 + (datasize - 1) // blocksize
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        offset = 0
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        if upload_cb:
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            upload_gen = upload_cb(nblocks)